(last edited 7/8/20)
Daniel is counted among the books of prophecy, yet he did not prophesy to his people Israel as the other prophets did. He did not speak to the ones alive at that time in the usual format “thus saith the Lord,” but much of his message is to those who would come later. Jesus referred to him as a prophet, Mat. 24:15. Daniel served in the political realm rather than the spiritual one, and is a good example of how a believer can witness by living his faith in whatever his position in life. Daniel stayed true to God and was an effective witness in a pagan society. The prophet Ezekiel held Daniel up as an example to the captive Jews, Eze. 14:14,20, 28:3; his righteousness and wisdom were widely known. Daniel was a young man, possibly a teenager, when he was taken to Babylon in the first wave of the captivity. After serving under Nebuchadnezzar, Darius, and Cyrus, he would have been at least 85.
The Bible speaks of many things in the future, and we are encouraged and excited to know that God wants us to know His big plan. Yet some Christians don’t think you should spend much time studying or talking about prophecy. One fourth of the Bible is prophetic, and much of that prophecy has already been fulfilled. When you read and study the Bible straight through, not skipping over or leaving anything out, you automatically give each verse and topic the proper amount of emphasis. Prophecy can’t be fully understood without looking at the entire Bible, so that motivates us to read the whole book. Prophecy sometimes involves symbolism, but when the Bible uses symbolism it interprets much of the symbolism for us. Some think the study of prophecy should only be for mature Christians, but in II Thes. 2:5, we find that Paul had taught the new Christians in Thessalonica about the rapture followed by the man of lawlessness (the beast/antichrist) and the tribulation (the day of the Lord), even though he was only there less than a month.
This book has come under much attack from liberal Bible scholars. They claim it was written at a much later date, or that it was written by someone other than Daniel himself. There is no evidence for these claims. Liberals do not believe in the supernatural, so fulfilled detailed prophecy like Daniel has given is flat out rejected. They think it must have been written AFTER these events happened, by someone later. But the manuscript evidence is strong for Daniel, and Jesus referred to “Daniel the prophet” (Mat. 24:15, Mar. 13:14), so if Daniel is a fake, Jesus was confused or a liar. Even if you don’t know about the manuscript evidence, you can trust what Jesus said. Whenever you question one part of Scripture, you cast doubt on other parts of Scripture. For example, if you believe God used evolution to create, then you have a big problem: death then came BEFORE sin, not as a result of it, which means that the whole Bible is wrong, Christ did not need to die for our sin to save us from eternal death, and God is a liar.
In this book we find: believers living godly lives in a pagan society; God’s faithfulness to His people and His covenant, even though they were currently being disciplined for their disobedience; God’s sovereign authority over Gentile nations--all the nations other than Israel; the outline of “the times of the Gentiles,” which is when Israel is being chastened by means of the Gentiles. Luke 21:24 points to this period beginning in II Kings 25:1-12.
1-2 The historical setting, going back to when Nebuchadnezzar first besieged Jerusalem. This was the first year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign. His first invasion of Judah took place about a month after his father died and he received the crown. Where so we first read of Shinar? Gen. 10:10, 11:2. It is the country of Babylon, and is known to secular archaeologists as Sumer--the land of the Sumerians for about 2000 years, before they were conquered by the Babylonians. They were the first Mesopotamian civilization, the creators of civilization as we know it--culture, science, industry, and government.
So Nebuchadnezzar’s reign virtually begins with this interaction with Israel. Who caused this—God or N? What words in 2 set out the conflict and theme of this book? The Lord, his gods. The rest of this book addresses and answers the question raised here—who is the true God, and who has power? Could we say this is one of the themes of the Bible?
A review of the context for this book will help us make more sense of this book and see how it fits with the rest of the Bible. It will help us understand the rest of the Bible, especially Revelation. We first read of Babylon in II Kings 17:24. It was not yet an empire but but was under the rule of the Assyrian empire, who took captive the northern kingdom of Israel. Later Babylon overthrew Assyria and became the leading empire of the world, under Nabopolassar. Twenty years later he died and his son Nebuchadnezzar became the king, in 605 BC, the year this book begins.
God punished Israel by sending them into captivity to the Assyrians, never to return. 100 years later Judah, the southern kingdom of Israel, is punished by being sent into captivity to Babylon for 70 years. Jeremiah the prophet warned them of this but they refused to repent, and it happened. He also told them that when the Babylonians came (also known as Chaldeans), they should not resist but go with them and serve the king of Babylon. Many of the people thought that idea was ridiculous and refused; Jeremiah said it would not go as well with them. Jer. 25:8-12, whose plan was this? Is the king of Babylon obeying God, or did he do this of his own free will? So why will God later punish Babylon for this, 12? At that time, Babylon will be overthrown by the Medes and Persians. What can we learn from this about how God operates in the world? We will learn more about that in this book.
3-6 What else was taken besides items from the temple? I wonder why Daniel chooses to mention the temple items before the captives? What kind of families were these captives in the first of the three deportations, 3? Being the cream of the crop, they were to be given a college education and choice foods. What "w" word is a key word in this book? Be on the lookout for it, concerning Daniel and others.
Who was over them, 3? The NASB says chief of the “officials” but the KJV says “eunuchs,” as it is usually translated, because officials were generally eunuchs. What is a eunuch? Why was this done? Castration would remove temptations, especially the lust for sex and power, that could complicate and compromise their service; now they will be loyal trusted servants (kind of like why we geld stallions). This was probably done to these young men. II Kings 20:18, Isa. 39:5-7, Mat. 19:12. What two eunuchs do we read about in the Bible? The eunuch in Esther who was in charge of the king's harem, and the Ethopian eunuch who Philip led to Christ, found where? Acts. t
7 Might these name changes have significance to the story? In Bible days, names were significant. Daniel: God is my judge. Hananiah: the Lord’s beloved. Mishael: who is as God? Azariah: the Lord is my help. What clues might these give us about these boys, their parents, their upbringing? Since these were taken in the first siege (so possibly their families too), perhaps their parents were not among the faithless but believed and obeyed Jeremiah the prophet and had gone out of the city to the Chaldeans, Jer. 38:2,17-1. All their names are about who? Why might N want to change them? We have a clue in 2. They are renamed after pagan gods. Belteshazzar: Bel was their chief god. Shadrach: illumined by Rak. Meshach: belonging to Shak. Abednego: a servant of Nego. (N's name: may Nebo protect the crown.) How might this renaming have affected these four? Does being put in an ungodly environment challenge or corrupt the faith of a Christian?
8 Who comes up with this? All four of them are involved. What might have been the issue? Unclean food under the Law, or food offered to idols? Is Daniel hostile, impudent, demanding, confrontational? Does he have respect for the authority that is over him? He doesn't come across as a crazy Christian but what?
9 Why was the commander favorable to them rather than unbending? Lots of things in our lives seem to just happen, good or bad. Is God’s hand active in everything that happens? That is one of the truths the Old Testament brings out, and this book in particular. Things don’t just happen. God is in control of everything; the theological term is what? Sovereign--God's sovereignty over all. About only big events? Can we know, at the time, which insignificant events in our lives are truly insignificant, and which will end up being a factor in something bigger, later?
10-13 Daniel diplomatically proposes a test. "Vegetables" in NASB is "pulse" in the KJV; it contrasts with flesh, meaning things grown, so could include grain, therefore bread. Is God honored when Christians are belligerent to others or uncooperative with authority? Some people call this a fast or type of fast, even a model for us; was that Daniel's purpose? What WAS his purpose, 8? The Old Testament also speaks often of being defiled by sexual immorality and by idolatry. So what defiles us today? Sin!
14-16 What made the difference--avoiding meat and wine? Or God's favor? Is the overseer willing to let them continue? What is the lesson for us? Daniel faces temptations we constantly face. Does he seem to care if following God made him stick out in the crowd, about consequences? Is his obedience to God's Word filtered through concerns about possible negative outcomes? Does he ignore or re-interpret God's Word to suit his circumstances? Are these temptations Christians face? I Cor. 10:13.
17-21 Again we are told of these qualities, and what W word, twice? In 20 it is now mentioned first. Didn't 1:4 already say that they possessed these qualities? We all have certain qualities; might God enhance those qualities even more for His purposes? I think many people think of spiritual gifts in this way, rather than how the Bible speaks of them in I Cor. 12 and 14 as supernatural manifestations.
In 20 we are introduced to what group of people important in this book? They are described in various ways--how in 2:2? 2:4? 2:10? After that this group is called what in 2:12,14,18,24,27,48? We meet them again in chapters 4 and 5 in two other incidents. Don't wise men sound like very smart and studious men, seen here as counselors to the king? But what kind of wisdom is it referring to? Occult. What is another W word for this type of person--a word related to "wise"? A wizard is a male witch.
In the story of Jesus, what do some translations call them? Magi. A magus, singular, was a member of an ancient Persian clan specializing in occult activities, followers of Zoroaster. Pronounced "may-jus" and "may-jiy." The three magi in Mat. 2 were not kings, as is often said but not in the Bible, but were more likely occult priests. From this term comes what common word today, that all kids are interested in? magic.
In Dan. 2 these men are sometimes just referred to as Chaldeans--an early southern Mesopotamian people, conquered by the Babylonians. Chaldeans were noted for: astronomy, astrology, star-worship, interpreting of omens, horoscopes, masters of reading and writing, obscure knowledge, incantations, sorcery, witchcraft, and the magical arts. So now we look back at 1:4 and see that Daniel and friends were not merely being assimilated into Babylonian culture and government, but, more specifically, were being trained as what?
King Balak of Moab summoned Balaam, a well-known diviner, all the way from Mesopotamia to curse Israel when they camped by the Jordan, preparing to enter the land of Canaan. Now we have more insight into the story of Balaam. He was apparently one of the Chaldeans. He had occult wisdom and power, Num. 22:6 and 24:1, but he learns that who has the true power? Yet he does not come to believe in the true God. King Balak offers to pay him handsomely to say what Balak wants him to say, but Balaam finds that he can only say what God gives him to say, and he keeps telling this to Balak. As in Daniel, and as in Pharaoh's court in Exodus, we see what contrasted? Surprisingly, Balaam also gives some amazing prophecies about the coming Messiah, 24:15-19, which later magi will study and look for His star. Knowing of Daniel, the God of Israel, and the One with the scepter who is coming who "shall have dominion," these wise men seek to worship the true God; perhaps they represented a group of the magi that had become followers of Daniel's God? We also see how God uses Balaam's free will in disobeying God and going to Balak, to accomplish God's sovereign will! Which takes us to Matthew and illustrates this prayer--"Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven."
What other Bible character was originally a Chaldean, Gen. 11:27-31? This gives us some clues about his religious background. So God called the one whose line would become Israel out of the land that would later become Babylon, to a land that He promised to give to that nation. After the captivity, in Daniel's day, the faithful of Israel would again leave Babylon and return to the land God promised them. Babylon often represents man's corrupt godless kingdom, beginning at what incident? Babel, and culminating in Revelation; what does God say in Rev. 18:1-4? Babylon is another sub-theme of the Bible.
So now in the introduction to Daniel's story, we are given two contrasting kinds of wisdom. Does the Bible have much to say about wisdom? YES! We might even say that wisdom is one of many sub-themes of the Bible. J. Vernon McGee often points out that first mentions in the Bible are important, and often set a precedent for understanding and interpreting. Where is the first mention of wisdom? Gen. 3:1-7. What did Eve desire--just to be extra smart? Since God had created Adam and Eve perfect, wasn't she already wise? But when she was presented with the other kind of wisdom, she desired it--and who had what she wanted? Which kind of wisdom did he have? What was the end result of that wisdom, 7? So in the introduction to the big story of the Bible, we are given the same set-up we see in Daniel; then in the rest of the story, we see how it plays out.
Where do we read about Satan's wisdom? Eze. 28 starts out addressed to who? The prince of Tyre, which was the center of trade at that time; it often was used to represent commercialism, greed--kind of like speaking of Wall Street. Then in the middle of the chapter, 11, it changes to speaking of who? The king of Tyre, and looking at the next few verses, who IS that? Satan. So the prince of Tyre was either symbolic of Satan or empowered by him. How is he described in 3, 4, 5, 7? What was Satan like in the beginning, before he sinned, 12? What happened after he fell, 17? So are these the two kinds of wisdom contrasted for us?
The next mention is Gen. 41:8,33,39, again contrasting the two kinds of wisdom for us. Where do we find the next wise men? Exodus--Pharaoh, Moses, and the plagues. What do we know about those wise men? They had occult power--like God's power? Who was the wisest man in the Bible? Which kind of wisdom did he have? He wrote much about wisdom, in which books? Proverbs, Ecclesiastes.
What is the first mention in the New Testament? The wise man did what? What does that mean? What about young Jesus, Luke 2:40,52? Acts 6:3,10, who gives wisdom? In I Cor. 1-2, Paul contrasts two kinds of wisdom, speaking here not of the occult but of wisdom apart from God. James 3 contrasts two kinds of wisdom, and what does he tell us in 1:5?
These four young men stood out far above Nebuchadnezzar’s own people. Do you think that made them popular? What might it cause instead? resentment, even hatred? We shall see. Does living for God make you popular? 21 tells us that 19-21 are an overview of the entire time they were there. The author (Daniel) has given us the characters, the setting and the background, and set up the theme and the conflict; now the plot begins to unfold. As we often see in the Old Testament style of writing, the big picture which we are first given will be followed by a more detailed account of some events during that time period. 20 sets us up to understand the following accounts. 2 and 7 point us to what God was doing in the lives of the Babylonian leaders they served. God was giving these pagan leaders the opportunity to ask and answer what question? So was God's plan just about Israel? How should knowing this affect our thinking?
What a unique opportunity God had given them to be an influence of godliness as they serve in secular positions of power in this pagan kingdom. Will they, like many Christians we see in the news, eventually give in to the temptation to water down their beliefs in order to protect their positions or their lives? We will find out in the next few chapters. Does God only use intelligent, wise, and rich people, like Daniel, Job, Solomon, Moses, Abraham? Do we also read about poor, average, uneducated nobodies? How should knowing this affect our thinking? No matter who we are, God is working in us and through us, to increase our own faith and to influence others.
1 When does this next incident take place? Daniel and his friends were to be educated for how long? So apparently they are still in training. Or it could be that the dreams, or this recurring dream, began in his second year, and some time elapses before verse 2, or the confrontation with the wise men takes place over a period of time. At the conclusion of this incident, in 48, Daniel is promoted to something like prime minister, so it seems a few years may pass after 1.
How did this dream affect Nebuchadnezzar? Shortly into the reign of this Gentile king, God intervenes in his life very insistently--we wonder why? Why him and why now? The end of the chapter gives a clue.
2-3 Who does N look to for help? Apparently they are his trusted source of usual advice. What does that tell us about these "arts"? Do they have above-ordinary wisdom and power? What is the source of their wisdom and their powers? So what do we learn here about Satan? Is there power in the occult? Do you see how this incident relates to the theme set up in the first chapter?
4 The first section of this book was written in Hebrew, the language of the Jews, but beginning in 4 it is written in Aramaic, the language of the Gentile nations at that time, continuing through the end of chapter 7. Daniel's fluency in the language of N's court is one of the strong evidences of the authenticity of this book and against a later writing, as skeptics claim. Beginning in Daniel 8, the language is Hebrew again. Why? In this Aramaic section are several extended passages describing the Gentile empires of the world, spanning the time from Daniel’s day (the beginning of the Babylonian empire) through the final kingdom, which will be that of the yet-to-come Antichrist. The rest of the book deals with how Israel fits into that picture. Can the wise men tell the dream?
5-6 What does this reveal to us about N? Does this seem irrational? We will see more that builds on this first impression. Someone has suggested that perhaps they had deceived him in the past and so he gave them a test of their true abilities, or perhaps as a younger king just coming to power, he was looking for an excuse to get rid of the "old guard." Or is N very astute and trying to determine if what he has grown up with is real? Is he searching for truth?
7-11 Even with this incentive, can they do it? Do they understand that the powers they posses are limited? What does N suspect about his wise men? He must have already been having doubts about them. He is calling their bluff; if they are what they say they are, could they do this? Isn't this actually the perfect test? 11, what do they recognize? Interesting.
12-16 Was N's reaction reasonable? On the one hand, he could be irrational, but on the other, he is merely demanding his wise men do what they claim to do, and setting up incentives and consequences. Who comes into the picture? How are his actions described? Just like in the food incident. Why is he confident?
17-23 What was his plan? What results? God answers. Daniel does what, 19. What does that mean? Other than singing that in a few songs or reading it in Psalms, we don't tend to speak of blessing God. The answer is in 20-23. At first it sounds like he is just talking about God, to someone, but then he is talking TO God. So apparently he is saying it all to God. So what does this tell us about what it means to bless God? When God blesses us, He does things for us, gives us things. When we bless God, we give him glory and praise and recognition, as He deserves.
Here he is particularly recognizing things about God that have to do with this situation. As we have been seeing, and as this dream points out, who is calling the shots? He speaks of changes of times and epochs; this is what the dream is about. What are epochs? So are changes of times about clocks, calendars, and how different people tell time? This phrase is interesting because it is also used of who else, later in Daniel, in 7:25? Change times, make alterations in times--not time, but times. The word speaks of transforming, especially for the worse, to be other, different. So this passage sheds light on the meaning of that passage. What does Daniel recognize about the wisdom he has received? Does Daniel seem to have pride issues? Is that a temptation as God uses people?
We might wonder how such a young man got so wise, humble, spiritually mature at such an early age? How does this usually develop? painful experience? What may he have experienced before being taken from his family? What might it have been like growing up in a godly family struggling to be faithful and cope with Israel’s gross falling away from God? If their parents were of the faithful minority, might they have faced scorn, ridicule, and pressure from other Jews? So they might have already experienced and learned quite a bit at their young age.
24-26 Is his plea, "don’t kill me and my friends?" Wouldn't he see this as the perfect opportunity for God to take these pagan occultists out of the picture? Or maybe he sees this as an opportunity for what instead? The plot thickens--he now comes to N's attention and comes before N himself, who was just beginning his 43-year reign; he could have been quite young, not much older than Daniel. After dealing with the others, I wonder if he was surprised and intrigued by this young Jew.
27-30 Does Daniel draw attention to himself? that God gave this knowledge to HIM, that HE was a follower of God? He points N's attention where? The dream was in response to what? his desire to understand the future. Our picture of who N was is rounding out. Like the old commercial (about the National Enquirer) said, "Enquiring minds want to know!" Apparently he was a thinker and took his position seriously. History tells us of his great accomplishments--military, culture, roads and buildings, irrigation, making his city the most beautiful in the world and his kingdom the pinnacle of greatness. 28, what time period is referred to?
Don’t you wonder why God decided to let N know these things, and not an Israelite, or a prophet--why THIS man? Why does He give it to the Gentile leader of the current world empire? So here we see Daniel functioning as a prophet, revealing God’s message, foretelling future events, but in a different way then God spoke to Israel. Why would Nebuchadnezzar believe Daniel’s interpretation? Because of the miracle of Daniel telling him what he dreamed. Daniel’s long-range message is validated by this miracle in the here-and-now. What was the purpose of miracles, of signs and wonders, in the Bible? To validate the message and the messenger.
We see an example of witnessing in a very natural way--giving credit to God. Is this a way we can witness? Giving God credit for events that happen in our lives, for this world He created, for abilities we have that someone compliments us on--something that person can relate to. He points out God’s interest in Nebuchadnezzar.
31-35 The dream. God is revealing Himself to a Gentile, a pagan, and He uses language that a man like N can relate to. An image, kingdoms, valuable metals. God is not limited in His means of speaking to different kinds of people! Is God revealing spiritual truth to this Gentile, or merely political information? What is the statue? Which metal is the most valuable, and which least? Which is strongest, and which weakest? So what do the metals tell us about the kingdoms? What does that tell us about the Babylonian empire and Nebuchadnezzar as a ruler? 34, what else besides a statue? Did it strike the whole statue? What did the stone become? Is a mountain bigger or greater than a statue?
36 How do you think Nebuchadnezzar is feeling at this point? Will he accept Daniel’s interpretation? Why?
37-38 Nebuchadnezzar finds out that HE is represented in this dream, and that HE is the head of gold! What else does he find out? HOW did he get this position?
39 Now he learns the future: two later kingdoms.
40 Even later, a fourth kingdom. This kingdom especially interests us because it appears to be future; it has not yet been. It could be in the distant future or immediate future.
40-43 The statue represents what? Four kingdoms, each one a metal, and the final kingdom (toes) is a continuation of the fourth (legs), still iron but mixed with what? What would the TWO legs indicate? What would the TEN toes indicate? The final kingdom, in every description in this book, is not like the other kingdoms. It is made of two elements; do they combine well? 43 tells us HOW the two elements will be combined; the seed of men, something having to do with reproduction, genetics, descendants. (Most commentators only touch lightly on this, whatever it means.) However, if this kingdom is the kingdom of the Antichrist, described elsewhere in Daniel and Revelation, it will only last seven years, so it can’t be talking about their descendants. Rev. 13 describes the leader of this final kingdom.
The four kingdoms are not identified here by name, but we know the first is Babylon. Elsewhere in Daniel, the next two are identified by name, as Media-Persia, and Greece. We believe the fourth to be what? Why? Why two legs? The West and the East; the West disintegrated into what era? the Dark Ages, the medieval times. The East lived on for 1000 years as what? Byzantine or Ottoman empire. The Catholic church followed this split, in what two locations? the Vatican in Rome, and the Eastern Orthodox church centered in Constantinople.
What happened to the Roman Empire? Was it conquered and destroyed? No. So in some way, it (the legs) will be part of the final kingdom (the 10 toes). This is why we call this future kingdom “the revived Roman empire.” History tells us of these four great kingdoms. There are no kingdoms mentioned between the Roman empire and the 10 toes/10 kings. Where are WE, time-wise to these kingdoms? in that in-between period. This fourth kingdom is spoken of much in Daniel and in Revelation, yet somehow many think that we shouldn’t think/worry/study about this fourth kingdom that the Bible talks so much about.
These kingdoms are obviously not all the great civilizations of the world. Is the Bible written as a textbook of world history? What people is it primarily concerned with? Israel, and the peoples that have to do with them, that interact with them. Why does the statue begin with Babylon? Up until now--the Babylonian captivity--God had been dealing directly with Israel, beginning with Abraham--where is that found? Gen. 12. 100 years before Daniel, the northern kingdom, Israel, was taken away into captivity by Assyria, just as God warned would happen if they did not return to Him. Judah, the southern kingdom, was warned of the same fate but did not repent either. In this book, in several scenarios, God lays out His plan between the captivity and the time of the end. The statue He shows N is one; where does Israel fit in? Does Daniel have any idea how far in the future that might be? In Dan. 7-12, God gives Daniel three visions that cover that same time period but speak of those Gentile kingdoms intersecting with Israel.
44-45 The Bible often uses the symbol of the stone or rock for what? When does God’s kingdom come--the kingdom promised to Israel, ruled by the Messiah, as prophesied by Isaiah? After these four kingdoms. 44, what is this kingdom like? How long will it last? What does the stone do, 35? Rev. 19-20 tells how that happens. Who does Daniel focus N's attention on? Pointing out that He did what, 45?
46 Does N recognize that Daniel has performed a miracle? Can you imagine a king falling on his face before ANYONE? Especially a young man, perhaps even younger than himself--a foreigner? What different reaction might he have had, when confronted with God's power? What was Pharaoh's reaction when confronted with God's miraculous power? So what do we learn about N?
47 What is his reaction to Daniel’s God? Does he say this is now his God? or the only God? Is this incident the end of God's dealing with N? Has God got his attention? The next few chapters show how the seed of faith was planted and watered.
48-49 What happened because of this incident? Daniel, the young Jewish "wonder boy," is instantly the prime minister! What is Daniel's first move? How do you imagine this is all accepted by those currently in power? Are the wise men grateful for Daniel saving their lives and now loyal to him? Or now resenting his sudden rise to power over them? This sets up the background for the next chapter.
We had much drama in the previous chapter; the entire book is full of mind-blowing drama.
1-2 Who is this incident also about? Why might he do this? Maybe because of the dream? Is this statue like the dream? Is it a likeness of himself? We don't know. A lavish display of wealth, of pride? How is this like Rev. 13? World ruler, Babylon, image, rebellion against God, one world religion, punishment for those that refuse, sixes, and an interesting "w" word that is coming up.
By now our "prophecy meter" should be beeping and flashing with red lights! At the beginning of this book, Babylon was presented as the kingdom God used, and had warned Judah of prophetically, to punish their continual disobedience. Then we observed the statue in the dream, and Babylon as the first of a number of kingdoms, yet our attention was drawn to the fourth kingdom. Now we observe N looking suspiciously like the beast in Rev. 13. We realize that Babylon in the Bible is more than this historical interlude; it spans from what event to what event? Where are those found in the Bible? From the tower of Babel, Gen. 11, to its final destruction in Rev. 18 just before what major event? The return of Christ. We are seeing a theme that runs through the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and a connection between Daniel and Revelation, which will build throughout this book. These observations will help us understand Rev. 18 when we get there.
2 Is this the same group of men we have been reading about?
3-5 What do these people worship? Idols. What are they now to worship? The Egyptian Pharaohs were known for emperor worship as also other later cultures; some believe Nimrod, in Gen. 10-11, was the first. What had N said in 2:47? Has he forgotten? Or maybe his ego is threatened by that knowledge and he is asserting himself over God? Who else in the Bible did that??
What was the important "w" word we've been observing in this book? Here is another; it is the theme of this chapter, and is found here more than any other place in the Bible, so we want to look closely at this repeated term. Where did we find the first use of this word, which also showed us its true meaning? Gen. 22--what happened there? What term is used synonymously with it? Here, as in many places, the Bible defines worship for us. Is it singing, warm fuzzy feelings about God, and telling Him how much you love Him?
6-7 If they were already idol worshippers, why would such an extreme threat be needed? A display of power? There were large beehive-shaped brick kilns just outside the city, for N's great road-building project as he expanded his kingdom. Again we see what phrase, twice? They do this when they hear the music--might this be one reason the church has come to associate worship with music? Is that the meaning here? Men of every nation and language: what do we learn here about the kingdom of Babylon? It had conquered and consolidated many nations besides Israel. Would they likely have worshipped different gods? So what is N doing here? Consolidating religion, creating a one-world religion that he controlled, while displaying his power over life and death?
8-12 How many times do we find the "w" word here? The third time, what different synonym is used with it? Again, helping us understand what the Bible means by this term. They are turned in by who? And they represent what group? Why might they have done that? Resentment, hatred, revenge? Were they there and seen to be the only ones not bowing, or had they refused to even attend? Why is Daniel not turned in? What is his position, 2:49? So why might he have not been present?
13-15 How is Nebuchadnezzar’s mood described? He was obviously an intelligent, gifted, powerful ruler, but what kind of a personality is being painted for us in this book? He calls them before him. What synonyms are used with worship in 14 and 15? End of 15, why would he say this after what he said in 2:47? What does he believe about himself?
16-18 Are they being smartalecks, like "we don't have to answer to you"? KJV, "we are not careful"--they are not full of “care” in giving their answer, they will let the chips fall where they may. A commentator says "we" in 16 is emphasized in the Aramaic, saying that who will? So in 17 they would emphasize "our God" and "He." Is this a showdown between N and God? They are saying, regardless of the outcome, who will NOT win?
Did they say God would deliver them? IF. He is ABLE. And what if God chooses not to? Do WE know He can, but don't know if He will? Is that why we have fear? Do they seem to be in a panic? Should we be? Here is the crux of this story. This has to be one of the most amazing statements of faith in the Bible.
What about just saying "we’ll bow outwardly, but God knows our heart, and that we don’t really mean it"? Are our earthly lives more important than being a true, and public, witness to God? How did these young men come to such strong faith? So are long years of spiritual growth and life experiences the only way to a strong faith? Can we KNOW it is God’s desire to save from danger, heal, provide more money, fix a relationship, elect the best president? Why might it not be God's will? So the question always is: can we, do we trust God's goodness and sovereign plan?
Do you think God allowed them to experience doubt and fear, even though He was going to deliver them? Why does He allow us to experience pain, doubt and fear? Why did He allow Lazarus to experience death and Mary and Martha to experience pain, doubt and grief, when He knew what He was going to do? Why did He allow Abraham and Isaac to experience doubts, fears, and emotional pain, when He knew He would stop the sacrifice at the last moment?
19 What do we see about Nebuchadnezzar’s emotions here? His face is what? Because he was filled with what? The furnace was already hot enough to kill; his orders imply an insane vengeance on those who dare to defy him! Comparing his callous pronouncement of death to the wise men earlier, and things we will read about him later, we might conclude that this man’s personality is emotionally volatile, his temper is quick, he is ruled by his emotions, perhaps he is even mentally unstable, even borderline insane. Yet he is obviously a man of high intelligence and great ability, or he would not be the king of the greatest empire on earth--great even in God's estimation, humanly speaking. Comparing what we observed in 1-2, about the beast in Rev. 13, who at that point is empowered or possibly indwelt by Satan at that point, what do we learn about Satan? He has an insane desire for worship, to steal the worship due to God, to have a showdown with God, and has an insane rage against those who refuse to bow to him.
Psychology tells us that we should let our feelings dictate our decisions--to be true to ourselves. The Bible says be true to who? What does it say about feelings and Self?
20-23 They are tied up and thrown in. So this is worship? So how do we worship--with words of love, or rather? with actions that demonstrate it? What parable is this like, when Jesus spoke of loving your neighbor? Love shows itself in what not what? Actions not words. What happens to those who carried them?
24-25 Nebuchadnezzar comes face to face with God’s power, and how does he respond? He can’t believe what he sees, he is quite excited. Who is the fourth person? We are not told; we are only told what Nebuchadnezzar sees and says. The fourth person is obviously different; he is LIKE a son of the gods because he appears to be god-like. We can safely conclude that this is? the pre-incarnate Christ, or as the Old Testament often identifies Him, the angel of the Lord.
26-27 Should we assume that this is the way God will always answer our prayers? Aren't there many martyrs? and many deliveries, even miraculous ones? Why does God do differently?
28-29 Is Nebuchadnezzar now a believer? We see recognition that they have a powerful god, more powerful than any of the other gods. What other words are used with the "w" word? They even yielded their what? We read of this with Abraham and Isaac; where do we read of this for the church? Rom. 12:1-2.
This historical event points prophetically to what future event? Believers in the final form of Babylon, under a one-world-ruler, who demands what? worship. As here, why are those who refuse seen as a threat? Who will be the real ruler of that Babylon? Is N's insane rage a picture of how that ruler will feel and act toward those who refuse to worship him? What if the government commands us to do something, or refrain from doing something, against our belief? If we are ever subjected to persecution, this story is an example for us. When all possible hope or help is gone, God can still act, although He may leave us in our situation for His own reasons. Either way, He will keep us. What does that mean, if He allows the bed thing to happen--keep us from what? Satan? fear?
If worship means to fall down before God, to yield, serve, and put your trust in Him, as said in 28, how does that relate to Sunday morning--corporate praying, singing, and teaching? Can it if those activities point us to true worship, help us to worship in our daily lives? Is the gathering of the church to be a meeting where some do activities and the rest listen and watch and decide whether we got something out of it? Is there any such thing as a worship leader or worship team? What terms might be more accurate? Is it telling or singing how much we love God, what we will do for Him? Does H want to hear us tell Him that, or rather show Him by doing that?
In the epistles (the directions to the church), "worship" is never used in connection with a gathering of believers. What ARE we to do as a church gathering? Acts 1:14, 2:1-47, 15:35, 18:11, 20:7, Rom. 12:4-8, I Cor. 16:2, Gal. 6:6, Col. 3:16 (group singing is to be done, but is not presented as worship).
Worship is never presented in the Bible as a group experience. One reason people associate worship with church may be the numerous Bible references to coming to the temple to worship. Many people equate the temple with the church, the Sabbath with Sunday, Israel with the church; are these synonymous? In the Old Testament, Israel did meet with God at the temple only, Ex. 20:24, 25:21-22, 29:42-43, 30:6, 36, Lev. 1:3. That was the only place that their sacrifices could be offered--their required act of worship. So for Israel, the temple and the altar were necessary for worship. In the New Testament (the church age, the age or dispensation of grace), the individual believer comes to God through Christ, and what is the temple? our body, because that's where God's presence is, through the indwelling Holy Spirit. The church is not the temple or even the house of God, it is just the place of gathering of the fellowship of true believers, for teaching, prayer, breaking of bread, the public reading of the Word.
The Sabbath was given to Israel as a day of what? rest, Ex. 20:8-11. Is Sunday now the Sabbath? the day of rest? Are we commanded to worship on Sunday? We do it why? To remember the resurrection, which was on the first day of the week. Later the Jews did begin to assemble on the Sabbath at the local synagogues, as well as visiting the temple to bring their sacrifices. For the believer, the Sabbath was fulfilled in Christ, Heb. 4:9-11. We exercise faith in Christ and we rest from works; in the Old Testament they were to fear God and do what is right, but now salvation is no longer about doing. What day is our day of rest now? Every day!
1-3 Who is speaking? Apparently Daniel has included an account N had written of this experience he had with God. What is different here from how he spoke of God in 2:47 and 3:28-29? what God has done for HIM, not "your" or "their" God. What might this make us wonder about N? In the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, preferred by the early church), these verses are part of chapter 3; chapter 4 begins with verse 4.
4-9 Why might we be told 4 as prelude to the dream? Twice now God has sent him an unusual, meaningful dream. I wonder why this time he tells the dream to his wise men? They have powers, but from who? Why can't that power interpret dreams from God? Does Satan understand or have insight into the things of God? What does N remember about Daniel? What two phrases in 8 reinforce the conflict we have seen so far in this book? Why might both names be used? 9, is Daniel now one of these, or is this saying that he is over this group of people? What does N see as different in him? Something different about his gods.
10-18 The dream. What do trees often symbolize? Nations, powers, rulers: the fig tree referring to Israel (Hos. 9:10), the olive tree used of Israel and the Gentiles (Rom. 11), the mustard seed that becomes a tree used to represent the institutional church or Christianity throughout history (Mt. 13:31-32), and others. What in 12 is sometimes also used symbolically? to symbolize what? So we wonder if that idea is in view; not every time a tree or bird is mentioned is it used symbolically--so how can we know? Context; does the context allow for the possible idea of evil lodging in the branches of the great tree?
Who is the messenger? an angel, watcher, holy one. What do we learn from these names? Apparently one of the roles of angels is to be watchers here on earth; some of the angels are assigned to be involved in the affairs of earth. In 14-15, "it" changes to what? So, a kingdom or a man?
In 16, what part of him will change? This word "change" is variously translated: changed, altered, made different, violated, damaged, same word for Daniel's face "made pale" when he has the disturbing visions later in the book. So not like you change the color of your hair or change your clothes. It changes to become like a what? Daniel will later have visions about kingdoms pictured as various beasts; how is this term used in Revelation?
We use that word to mean a large or dangerous animal, but it was often used simply of animals, a term that distinguished animals from humans. How is this term appropriate for kingdoms? Do they become dehumanized? What is the difference between an animal and a human? This term is applied especially to the final kingdom and ruler; what clue might this give us as to what is so different about that kingdom and its ruler? Today we read of plans to change the brain with a chip or implant, to supposedly improve it; if it changes our DNA, might this cause humans to not be fully human any longer? Might this be why no one who takes the mark of the beast can be saved?
"Periods of time" means what? years. In 7:25 and 12:7 we read of "time, times and half a time," so what would that be? Again our attention is drawn to the role of angels in the world; do angels play a major role in Revelation? and in the last few chapters of Daniel? What do we learn about God in the last half of 17? And about men? 18, what name is again brought to our attention? So is 13-17 a picture of the final Babylon and its ruler, as we see in Revelation? Why don't the wise men offer something--doesn't this dream seem fairly obvious?
19-23 The two names again, seeming to reinforce the basic conflict! Does N realize why Daniel hesitates? What does the description of the tree tell us about N and Babylon?
24-26 It sounds like Nebuchadnezzar will experience some sort of mental illness or insanity. There is a mental illness where someone believes they are an animal, or they act like one. There are known cases just like N. Did God cause him to act like that, or could this be naturally-occurring and God used it in His sovereign plan? Does this come out of the blue, or what have we already seen as possible pre-disposing behavior? Might God use mental as well as physical issues in our lives for His purpose?
Can a true understanding of God and the Bible, and the diligent and consistent application in one’s life, bring healing to mental, emotional, and behavior issues? (unless we are talking about structural or physical issues). The Bible and psychology both deal with guilt, anxiety, depression, bitterness, self-esteem issues such as egotism or worthlessness, living by and being controlled by feelings, past experiences. Why does psychology appeal to Christians looking for help with their problems? What IS the source of most of our problems? Sin, Self. Does psychology require you to deal with sin? Psychology focuses on and exalts Self, and seeks to remove personal guilt, not deal with it. Just get rid of relationships that are holding you back from fulfilling your true self. Don't let anyone make you change. Might Satan encourage our efforts to try other things than the Bible? God's psychology: Mat. 6:9-13, 25-34, John 3:30, Rom. 8:1,28, Phil. 2:14, 3:8-14, 4:4-7,11,13,19, I Thes. 5:16-18, I John 1:9, and many more!
27 WHY were these things about to happen? When people are told of hell, of judgment to come, do they immediately turn to Christ? Why not? What might God do if people repent when warned of judgment?
28-30 Roofs in those days were flat, and maybe like our patios. The phrase "Babylon the great" is used only here and one other place--where? Revelation, in 14:8, 16:19, 17:5, 18:2, and similarly, 17:18, 18:10,16,17,19,21. So would this be an important clue in interpreting Revelation? And especially the much debated identity of Babylon the great in Rev. 17 and 18. What other interpretation clues are in 30? This city and kingdom are in the past, so is Revelation speaking of the literal ancient city or kingdom, or using that name symbolically of something else? When the Bible uses symbolism, it gives us the clues to interpret it, so Babylon the great in Daniel would be a clue. Another clue is the first use of the name, in what place in early Genesis? Babel, the first city and kingdom recorded for us in the Bible after the flood, ruled by whom, that is also a type of the beast/Antichrist? Had God graciously warned him and given him time? Was God's purpose to punish or to change him? Same in our lives? Babylon truly was a great marvel; N was known more as a builder than a warrior. Why do you think God spoke to him just as he said those words? So it would be clear to him why.
33 Are all God's promises fulfilled? Literally? What does that tell us about prophesies not yet fulfilled? For seven years he doesn’t even know who he is. The opposite of how he was before; his ego was huge. Wouldn't it seem his enemies would take advantage? Who might have been key in protecting his kingdom for those seven years?
34-35 He looks to God, THEN his reason returns. Note the order. What does he recognize about God? Did Nebuchadnezzar now “know that God is the Lord” (a phrase we find over and over in Ezekiel)? Blessed, praised, honored: these words indicate an ongoing action, not a one time action. So does this mean the final one-world ruler will turn to God? How do we know? The Bible tells his fate. What DOES it picture? How God will humble who or what? the Gentile nations of the world, over what period of time? so that they will what? recognize who is God, who is the Messiah.
36 What impact do you suppose these events had on his counselors and nobles, and many others in his kingdom? Do you suppose they may have come to recognize the true God just as Nebuchadnezzar did?
37 Has he become a believer, or is he just giving the nod to Daniel's God? Would God include in His Word a chapter written by an unbeliever? 34 and 37, he blesses, praises, honors, and exalts the God who is true and just, he knows that God is sovereign over all. Does it sound like he repented of his sin of pride? Had God been working on him all along, confronting him with truth? Isn't it amazing that God was interested in reaching the leader of the world's greatest empire? Isn't it amazing how God took four young men in a "bad" situation (being taken captive) but used them to influence the most powerful man in the world? Can we always know if God has used us to influence someone else?
There is no secular historical confirmation of this incident in N's life, but historians have noted a seven-year period where there was no recorded military activity, perhaps when he was about 50.
1-4 Who is king now? That’s all we are told of Nebuchadnezzar. He died, and several sons ruled for short periods. Belshazzar is the son of Nabonidus and grandson of Nebuchadnezzar; remember that family terms were used loosely. This is the story of the final day of the kingdom of Babylon. He is giving this banquet as the city is being besieged by the Medes and Persians, 31; he is showing his contempt for them. The area around the city had already been taken, but the city was secure, having supplies for 20 years and massive walls, 300 feet high and 75 feet wide. The city was 13 1/2 miles square, with the great Euphrates River running through the middle of it. The city was so secure that the walls were not even guarded.
What activity are they involved in that is mentioned in each of these verses? While doing this, Belshazzar is also being defiantly sacrilegious to who, in 2 and repeated in 3? What contrasting word in 4 points us to the same conflict that has been playing out throughout this book? God vs gods. Does he sound like the higher-ups on the far left in our day? Mocking, flaunting, condescending, substance abuse, wealthy, not engaged in protecting the country? We are not told if this was an unusual event or not, but it seems likely that this was his lifestyle. Was flaunting the Jewish God a regular happening, or is it recorded here as the blasphemy that brought judgment?
5-6 Whose hand appears? God is always represented as a man, never a woman or an “it.” Is the Holy Spirit an "it"? A thing or person? Many do say "it" like just a force or spirit within us; He is God, in the Spirit. The feminists want to see God as a woman, so they have written their own version of the Bible to reflect that. Is God whoever we imagine Him to be? This is what many believe. How should this affect our conversations with someone who says they believe in God? Ask what they mean by that. When confronted with a supernatural manifestation of the true God, how does Belshazzar react? Is this how all will react at the great white throne judgment?
7-9 In an instant, from drunken mocking to abject fear. Wow. What did he promise anyone who could read and interpret this? He is called king, and rules with kingly authority, but he was only second in command; he ruled with his father Nabonidus, who was absent quite a bit. Do the wise men even make a stab at it--after all, who could disprove whatever they claimed it meant? What is God showing him, even before he knows the message? Are his gods real or not? Whose God has power? In our day, is the question, which god or belief, or is it God vs. no God? Or, who has power--man or God? Or, all of those?
10-12 What two repeated words in 11 again point to the basic conflict in this book? And all his qualities, in contrast to what group of men? What two names are again contrasted in 12? Same story, different king. Does B seem to know or know about Daniel? How does the queen know about Daniel? Is she B's wife, 2? She was the queen mother, either his mother or grandmother, so either the daughter or widow of N.
Here is another person we are told nothing about, but who certainly has a story of her own, yet these three verses are all we know of her. Why might she use those repeated words in 11? May she have become a believer, as Nebuchadnezzar apparently did? Had she been at the banquet? We might wonder why not. Is she recalling distant events, or might she as a possible believer have an ongoing relationship with Daniel? We wonder about her, from what little is told here. How many others were influenced by Daniel and his friends and by Nebuchadnezzar’s experiences?
13-16 Daniel is called; had he not retained his high position after Nebuchadnezzar’s death? Or was B just completely out of touch with those managing the kingdom? What words point to the ongoing conflict in this book? The "w" words, you/they, you are able/they could not. He is offered power just under B.
17-23 Is Daniel influenced by the same same things all political people crave? What two things did we read about Satan in Eze. 28 that he uses to corrupt man's kingdom? Money and power. B assumes Daniel is like this. Instead of giving the interpretation, what does Daniel speak of that is even more important than the message in the writing? What is the theme of this book--who is in charge, who has all the power? And what happens to those who are proud and arrogant against God? Even in today's government and business world? Up to 22, it sounds like B was ignorant of the earlier events of this book--was he? So Belshazzar had knowledge of God? How had he responded? All through this book Daniel uses his position to be a bold witness to the true God in high places, being a good steward of the abilities and opportunities God has given him. What is the lesson for us? Be faithful in using and developing our abilities and opportunities, no matter how small or insignificant, Col. 3:23-24.
24 How does Daniel use the hand to connect his confrontation of B, to the message on the wall, 24? Does it say this is God's hand? Does God the Father have a hand? If God is Spirit, He has no physical, visible body; sometimes the Bible speaks of His body parts or other human characteristics. What is an anthropomorphism? A literary device, a figure of speech, describing something non-human in human terms--for what purpose? If God is Spirit, how does He appear to people? as the second person of the Trinity, the pre-incarnate Christ, the angel of the Lord. God the Father never appears to anyone. Compare John 1:18, John 4:24, I John 4:12, Gen. 18:22, Gen. 22:11-18, Ex. 33:11, Judges 6:14-15,22, I Tim. 6:16.
25-28 Does it say these things “will” happen or have already happened? So even though the Medes and Persians take over his kingdom, who is really behind it? Are the Medes and Persians acting obediently on some message from God? Or exercising their own free will, oblivious of God? What do we learn here about God's will and His sovereignty? Is everything that happens, even bad things, divinely orchestrated to fit into God's plan for the ages? Is everything that happens, made to happen or allowed to happen? When the Lord's prayer says, "thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven," what does that mean, in heaven?
29 Does Belshazzar punish him for the negative message? Amazing. Might his response to Daniel possibly indicate a humble accepting of his message--conviction of sin? We are not given any words of repentance or evidence of change in his attitude toward the true God, as we were of N. He might have thought this would be off in the future yet, a warning, or why bother making Daniel a ruler?
30-31 Daniel did not rule with Belshazzar/Nabonidus. Why do you suppose God didn’t give Belshazzar a year, like He did Nebuchadnezzar, before judgment fell? Belshazzar had already had chances; he knew of N's experience. Prov. 29:1. Did God know Belshazzar wasn’t going to respond? Did He know N was?
A channel of the Euphrates River ran through the city. The Persian army had diverted it by building a canal to a nearby lake. When the water receded, the army came under the sluice gate, entering the city of unguarded walls without a fight, Jer. 27:6-7 literally fulfilled. Isa. 21:1-10, prophesied before Babylon was even a kingdom, literally fulfilled. The banquet of that night is described. Elam = Persia, just east of Babylon, where the city of Susa was located, and Media, north and east. "Wilderness of the sea" (21:1)--Babylon was on a desert plain by the Persian Gulf, watered by a series of canals from the Euphrates River. This story and these prophecies parallel Babylon the great harlot of Rev. 17:1. "Who sits on many waters" is interpreted for us in 17:15; literal waters of the original Babylon picture the nations of the world. Waters/sea/coastlands often speak of the Gentiles--the nations of the world.
How does this new rule by the Medes and Persians fit into Nebuchadnezzar’s dream of the statue? This is the second kingdom, the arms of silver; Babylon was the head of gold. Just as Babylon was corrupt and was overthrown, so the final corrupt Babylon, the final world empire, will be overthrown when Christ returns, Rev. 18:2,10, 19:1-21.
Most people think of this as the story of how God protected Daniel from the lions. I think the story is even more interesting if you see it as the story of Darius.
1-3 Who is king now? What kingdom is in control now? What is the king’s opinion of Daniel? How old might Daniel be now? Nebuchadnezzar was king for 43 years, and Daniel was captured in his first year. Satraps are princes; commissioners are like administrators, presidents.
4 Why would they do this? Political maneuvering, jealousy, power struggle. Daniel must be one of the few political figure in history that was not guilty of some type of negligence or corruption! We have no record of overt sin in Daniel’s life. Was he sinless? Compare 9:20, II Chron. 6:36, Rom. 5:12. If the Bible doesn't record someone's sins, does that mean they are sinless? If someone is "good" by human standards, are they "good" according to God's standard? Is. 61:6, Rom. 3:10-13,23.
5 A conspiracy hatches. They think they have found a way to trap him. They know he is innocent, and certainly the most worthy candidate for the position. They are willing to plot the murder of a just man. Have you ever been the innocent target of people who want to hurt you? Does the Bible promise that believers will never be mistreated by others?
6-7 Why don't they make the law permanent? It only needs to be just long enough to trap Daniel. They wanted Daniel dead; they could have made a less vicious law to trap Daniel and remove him from consideration for this high position. Also, their statement is a lie; have all consented? Was Daniel consulted? One small word makes a big difference; are we careful with our words? Is an exaggeration a lie? Especially if it is for the purpose of manipulating someone's opinion? Do Christians ever engage in this type of thing?
8 The laws of the Medes and Perians can’t be changed. We see this same thing in the book of Esther, where the king has trapped himself by signing a law that someone has designed against the Jews. Are man's schemes ever able to thwart God's purposes? Are Satan's? I John 4:4.
9 Why did he do it? Did he stop to think of any reason why it might not be a good idea? Does he wonder about the motivation of these men, what they might be trying to accomplish? Flattery massaged his ego, so he didn’t look too hard. When people play to your ego, be on guard. Satan also uses this trick.
10 What is Daniel’s response? What are some other possible responses he might have made? Why do you think he chose this path? What do we learn about Daniel from this verse? What characterized his prayers? Frequent prayer was part of his life, and perhaps the secret of his great ability as a statesman; he wasn’t a “closet” believer. His faith was visible to others but he didn’t do it to be seen; he knew what they were trying to do, but didn’t let that change anything in the way he lived his life before God. He didn’t do it now in a MORE visible way, to antagonize, to create an issue. He didn't start doing something he hadn't been doing before, just to provoke a confrontation. The consequences of his decision appeared to be a death sentence, but he seemed willing to accept that possibility. Shouldn’t he have just continued to pray but in a more hidden way? Would that choice have been “wrong”? How might this example teach us? (Why would he pray toward Jerusalem? We read this in Solomon’s prayer of dedication. II Chron. 6:36-39. God’s presence was there, in the temple, in the Holy of Holies. Is God's found today in a church building? Where is God's presence found? I Cor. 6:19)
11 They plot to come together and catch him in the act. Do they warn Daniel that his life is in danger if he doesn’t change his ways? Apparently not.
12 Instead, they go straight to the king and turn him in. Have you ever know someone with the "turn-in" mentality? They are more interested in seeing you get caught than in stopping you from doing whatever it is they don't like. Have you ever been guilty of this attitude toward someone you dislike? The Bible tells us that in the last days this attitude will be prevalent toward believers, apparently when there is persecution under the final world ruler, the Antichrist. Mt. 10:21-22, 24:9-10. Perhaps people at that time might be motivated by some sort of reward or penalty.
13 Daniel is turned in.
14 Is the king enraged? Why did he react like this? What does this tell us about the king and Daniel?
15 They again confront the king, perhaps fearful that he might find a way around the law, or that he may ignore the law. Don’t you suppose by then that the king knows why they got him to make that law? Knowing how he feels about Daniel, how do you suppose he is feeling about himself now? When we see Self for what we really are, we may even feel disgust and loathing about our own Self. Compare Paul's feelings about himself in Rom. 7:15-24.
16 Apparently that same day, the law is carried out. Who brings up the idea of God delivering Daniel--Daniel or the king? What does the king’s remark tell us about him? He knows about Daniel’s God, and has at least some idea that He is powerful enough to save Daniel. He doesn’t say he “hopes” it will happen. Does Daniel appear to be very concerned about the outcome?
17 The awful deed is done.
18 What does this tell us about Darius? I suspect he is feeling extremely guilty about his vanity, how it caused him to use bad judgment, and about Daniel’s God that he believes will deliver him. Perhaps he is experiencing conviction of his sinful actions, his sinful self, and the consequences of that sin? Sin can cause in us deep feelings of fear when we have set in motion circumstances that appear bleak. Just as we had the story of how God dealt with Nebuchadnezzar, now we see God dealing with Darius. We will see how Darius responds. He appears to have repented of his sinfulness and now chooses to trust God, not knowing what God will do, but knowing He can do the impossible.
19-20 All he can think about is Daniel. By giving in to his weakness, has he killed his good friend?
21-22 Good news!! God’s angel was probably the same one in the furnace, probably the angel of the Lord--the pre-incarnate Christ.
23 Daniel is removed to safety. Why was he safe?
24 Now the king has things straight. He now knows the others are corrupt, immoral, self-serving and back-stabbing, not the kind of men to run his kingdom. He needs men like Daniel. Unless there were a few who came as representatives of the rest, it sounds like he did away with all those men, the leaders of his kingdom, and their families.
25-27 Now here is the part we want to really focus on, the outcome of this story, and the purpose of this chapter. What can we conclude about Darius now? This is why I think that the night before, he was struggling with conviction of his own sinfulness, that as evil as those men were, he was no better himself! But Daniel’s sterling character and consistent life had pointed him to the true God. Idol worshippers did not have gods like this. Again we see God dealing with pagan nations and kings; His desire is that all men will know that He is God. We have no reason to think He only did this with a few mentioned in the Bible; I believe this is teaching us that God has been doing this throughout history, and still is. What an exciting thought! Actually, He is doing this with all men, not just kings; everyone has access to some knowledge of God, and will be held responsible for as much light as they had.
27 "Deliver" and "rescue." 16, 20 and 27 speak of delivering. 14 and 27 speak of rescuing. Neither the king nor God rescued Daniel; he was not kept from, or taken out of, the lions’ den. But he was delivered from the lions, IN the situation. Compare Dan. 3:8. There are several references in the Bible to people being rescued. The people rescued Jonathan, David rescued his two wives, someone was delivered by an army. 27 says God does both. When we are in a situation, sometimes God snatches us out of that situation--rescues us from it. But it seems that more often, He delivers us, leaving us in it and working in that situation to keep us from being overwhelmed. Why do you suppose He does that? We are faced with fear, and the decision of whether or not to trust God in the face of such great fear. God desires to build our faith more than He desires what? (to make everything feel nice for us)
28 There is some disagreement over the identity of Darius, and one view is that this verse can be translated “even” instead of “and.” Perhaps Darius was another name for Cyrus, as sometimes they went by different names. It is also thought that Darius ruled a portion of the kingdom under Cyrus. Others think that Darius ruled for two years, followed by Cyrus. There are other views also. But Dan. 1:21 says Daniel served until the first year of Cyrus.
Does Daniel ever plead for his life, to the king or to God? Does he express fear or concern? Of course we don't know his thoughts or feelings. But perhaps the explanation is found in the next two chapters. According to 7:1, the vision he records was given to him 14 years before the incident in the lions' den. The vision in Dan. 8 was given two years after the first one. I would imagine that after receiving those visions, Daniel was a changed man. After being given such insight into God's plan for the future, he may have been so humbled that he now saw himself, his life, and his problems as rather insignificant in the big picture. Surely he recognized that God was all-powerful and sovereign over all, and would do whatever He wished. Perhaps his attitude reflected Job's attitude in Job 13:15.
This begins the second section of the book of Daniel. The first six chapters are historical, dealing with incidents, and with how God was dealing with Gentile kings. The second section is prophetic. The prophetic elements in the first section were prophecies given to Gentile kings, who came to Daniel for their explanation. These next prophecies are given to Daniel himself, at different times in his life. But he has grouped them together in this section of his writings. Read the whole chapter first for context.
1 Daniel wrote this down.
2-14 is the dream, 17-27 is the interpretation. We don’t have to wonder what it means. 2, what brings about these things? In several other places--Jeremiah, Zechariah, Revelation--we read of the four corners of the earth and the four winds. Since we know there are not four literal corners, what can we take this to mean? The sea, waters, coastlands, the isles: all these are frequently used to speak of the nations of the world. So what might be happening in 2-3?
4-6 mention three beasts--a lion, a bear and a leopard. Does he actually see creatures? How do we know that? "Like" is a key word in symbolic passages. What do the creatures represent? Might the lion, bear and leopard match the gold, silver and bronze of the statue in Dan. 2? What did they represent? Babylon, Media-Persia, and Greece. The winged lion has been the symbol of Babylon. What might be pictured by the wings being plucked, then made to stand with a human mind? Nebuchadnezzar's years existing as a beast, then returning to himself and receiving his kingdom back? What is the next most powerful animal after the lion? Its two sides, one stronger than the other, might picture what? One half of Media-Persia being more powerful, which Persia was. The three ribs were Babylon, Lydian and Egypt. The next kingdom is what? The leopard lacks the strength of the first two but has what instead? Speed. What else about it speaks of swiftness? Who was the famous leader of Greece? Alexander the Great. He was indeed known for the swiftness of his conquests. The four heads represent the four divisions of the Greek kingdom following his death.
In 7, does it just crush the previous one? So might all three be in power at the time of the great tribulation? Some think these three beasts could represent possibly British empire/USA, Russia, and a coalition of eastern or Arab nations. Could the vision even speak of both interpretations? Bible prophecy often speaks of more than one layer of meaning, none of which contradict the others.
7 Is the fourth beast likened to any known animal? Nothing like it has ever been seen. How is it described? Destructive, frightening. How does it relate to the statue in Dan. 2? legs, toes. We saw that iron represented the Roman Empire, and the coming revived form of the Roman Empire. What three body parts are mentioned here? The teeth are described as iron, relating it to the statue and the Roman Empire. What do we know about its feet from the statue? So it has ten what and ten what? Could be related? It devours, crushes and tramples who? Who is the remainder? The other three beasts? The third beast? The remaining world powers? It is "different" in some unexplained way from all the other kingdoms before it. Which beast is given the most attention?
8 So there are ten horns and ten toes; then what happens? Now we are given three important pieces of information: a little horn shows up, something happens to three horns, and the little horn is not a creature but a what? a man? So we have a fourth kingdom and the one who will rule that fourth kingdom (interestingly, he is never referred to here as a man: horn, king, prince, a despicable person, "he"). This person is also talked about in Ezekiel 28, Revelation and II Thessalonians 2. Here he is a "horn" which would be a king or power. In comparison to the other horns, he is described as smaller. What might that mean? Smaller in physical stature than other men? Or from a nation that is smaller in size or power than others? Or appearing at first to be a nobody, or someone coming out of nowhere, someone non-threatening? Or because he comes on the scene after the others so for a shorter duration? Perhaps all of these?
What two parts of him are important? What could that mean? Something is different about his eyes--physically? Why are they "like" the eyes of a man if he is a man? Apparently his eyes will distinguish him. What do eyes do? He or his kingdom have a particular ability to "see"; thinking about today's technology, what could this be referring to? Satellites, spying cameras everywhere, cell phone tracking? What do mouths do? A controlled media that speaks for him? Making great claims?
Compare some passages in Revelation where the beast is described. 12:3, who has seven heads and ten horns? 13:1-2, who has seven heads and ten horns? Daniel mentions ten heads and three fall; how many does that leave? So what must happen? The beast of Revelation has characteristics of all the three beasts of Daniel 7; what does that tell us? And what role does the dragon play? Read Rev. 17.
We see a kingdom pictured as a beast and its leader going by several different names in various passages. In Rev. 13 John calls him the beast. I John says antichrist as coming, then speaks of antichrist as a spirit of deception, of false teachers, of those who deny the Father and the Son, of those who were already plentiful in John's day, who will be present throughout the church age. So in Daniel we are introduced to the kingdom as a beast, and in Revelation also as a person called the beast; the false prophet is described as another beast.
Here in Dan. 7, a beast is another word for a what? Animal, creature. In Rev. 4:6-8 who do we see in heaven? Compare them to the seraphim described in Isa. 6:2, the cherubim in Exo. 25:17-22, and the "living beings" in Eze. 1 and 10 (the entire chapters). The KJV calls them "beasts" in Rev. 4 while the NASB calls them "living creatures," which is the meaning of the Greek term "beasts." The word could also be translated "animals." This is apparently a term used for some sort of angelic creatures. Who comes on the scene in Rev. 13 who is referred to as "a beast" and "the beast"? Will he be a man or an angelic/demonic creature? Eze. 28, which speaks of Satan in 12-19, calling him the king of Tyre, first speaks of someone like him, under him, called the prince of Tyre, in the beginning of the chapter, which could be describing the beast; there, twice he is said to be a man and NOT God. This is interesting because Satan wants to be like God; God is a trinity, one person of whom is a man but also God--is the beast going to be Satan's "god-man"?
9-10 Who is pictured here? Note the word “like” again. Where else do we read about wheels around or under God’s throne? Ezekiel 1, where they represent what? the cherabim around the throne. Who are the thousands and myriads? Angels; might it include saints? Court, books, fire speak of what? So what time period? The day of judgment.
11-12 Is the beast here the person or the kingdom? What fire is this? Rev. 19:20. So the term “beast” is used both here and in Revelation to refer to that kingdom and to refer to its leader. The others lived for a short time after; what could that mean? Perhaps they were conquered but continued to be separate powers, or they were subjugated by the beast, but would continue to exist as nations in the millenial kingdom?
13-14 Who is this? Christ, His kingdom on earth. How long will this kingdom last? Rev. 21 speaks of the new what, what, and what? Heaven, earth, Jerusalem. These will go on how long?
15-16 What is Daniel’s reaction to this vision? Whatever he saw was terrifying to him. He knew of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and he knew that God had promised Israel a kingdom that would rule over the world and a Messiah to rule that kingdom. He has probably been wondering how this will all work out. He must have figured out that Israel is not going to receive that kingdom following the captivity; other world kingdoms must come first. So now, who does he ask? Was Daniel, the interpreter of dreams, able to interpret this vision? So if we have trouble understanding it too, is that OK? The rest of this chapter is the angel’s explanation, interpreting the vision to Daniel.
17-18 Do we have to guess what the beasts picture? The saints/holy ones/Israel finally receive their promised kingdom, promised throughout the Old Testament through God's prophets. I would guess that as Daniel saw the end of the 70-year captivity approaching, he had been wondering about the kingdom, if NOW they would receive what God had promised. So this vision is about HOW and WHEN that promised kingdom will come to Israel. We in the church age are living in what part of the vision? These two verses are a brief summary of the vision and its interpretation; here is this chapter in a nutshell. If we can't understand anything else from this chapter, we can understand this. Here is God's plan for the future. How could we restate these two verses in our own words? Understanding this, how should we feel about God, about the Bible, about our problems, about what we see happening in the world?
Who are the saints/holy ones? IS the church found in the Old Testament? When did the church begin Acts 2. Those who believe Israel and the church are one group--the same in God’s plan--see the church here being given the kingdom and all the promises of the Mosaic Law (but for some reason, not the curses, and not being required to keep the sacrifices, rituals, or carry out the required stonings). Since they don't take the Bible literally, they don't believe that each individual word has a specific meaning. But the Bible uses various terms to describe believers. What are some terms that refer specifically to Christians and are used only in New Testament? the church, in Christ, the body of Christ, indwelt by the Spirit, the bride. Before the cross, those terms were not used, nor are they used of believers following the rapture. Saints are spoken of in the Old Testament, New Testament, and tribulation. Here they cannot be the church because Daniel does not speak of the church at all, nor do we find the church anywhere in the Old Testament. He has been speaking about who? These saints are believing Jews. What does the Catholic church teach about saints? They are are special Christians who are on a higher plane than other Christians, who could perform miracles, and who are to be prayed to in heaven.
19-22 Like us, Daniel wants to know more about this fourth kingdom. Again we are told it is "different" in some unexplained way; it is more vicious and destructive than all the earlier ones. Like us, he wants to know more about the ten horns and that one horn in particular, before whom three fall. In 7:8 he describes it as a little horn, but here he says it is larger in appearance than the other horns; compare what we read in the next vision, 8:9. Is it speaking of the man or the kingdom? KJV says “whose look was more stout than his fellows.” Strong's also gives these terms: captain, chief, great, lord, master. Sounds like his role rather than his physical appearance.
Some think eyes are thought to refer to his knowledge or intelligence; might this be describing the man himself, or the capabilities of his kingdom? (think about how the computer, satellites, and implantable chips could be used to track us and everything we do) Or could there be something unique about his eyes? similar to human eyes but different? He is described here and elsewhere as boastful, arrogant, blasphemous. Interestingly, there are already known "creatures" that fit this description--demonic spirits or fallen angels that currently masquerade as "aliens," with unusual eyes. Do wicked angels--demons--play a big part in the end times scenario? Revelation speaks of much angel activity during the tribulation, of both good and bad angels. Might demons appear as aliens?
Unbelievers generally think "aliens" are highly evolved beings from elsewhere in the universe desiring to unselfishly help earth's inhabitants evolve to a higher form of humanity, and that they bring knowledge of higher technology. But their channeled messages, which you can read on many New Age websites, contradict that of the Bible, and echo New Age beliefs such as: we are all one, "god" is in all of us and in everything, we are all becoming god-like, we all have access to "the christ" or "the christ-consciousness" within us. They may speak of a Jesus, but specifically and vehemently deny the Jesus of the Bible; what was Satan's first lie, Gen. 3:1-5? This is parallel to the New Age belief that also specifically denying that the Jesus of the Bible was THE Christ, saying he was just one of many enlightened teachers, prophets, gurus. In Mat. 24:5, Jesus tells His disciples, inquiring about the end of the age, that the first thing that will happen is that "many will come in My name, saying, 'I am Christ.'" Might the beast be accompanied and affirmed by aliens?
The channeled demonic messages speak of a soon-coming time when there is going to be a change, a "shift" of massive proportion. They say that there are millions of people on earth who are holding back the arrival of the aliens and the age of Aquarius in which we supposedly will evolve to a higher state of consciousness--the "fifth dimension." These people are dark forces and have bad vibrations and must be cleansed from the earth. The aliens claim that they will levitate these people up to waiting UFO's and transport them to another place. Does this sound somewhat like what the Bible reveals will happen? How can these demons know this? What does this tell us about Satan and his strategy? Does Satan believe in the pre-tribulation rapture? YES! Might this be the beast's explanation for the disappearance of many people when the church (all true believers) are caught up to meet the Lord in the air? Many unbelievers have already been prepared to expect such an event.
Mat. 24:24, II Thes. 2:9, the Great Tribulation will be characterized by lying signs and wonders. II Thes. 2:11 speaks of the unbelievers during that time believing "what is false" (NASB), "the lie" (KJV). What might "the lie" be? the identity of the beast, the source of his power, the explanation of the great disappearance? What does John 8:44 say about Satan?
21-22 What does this man, or this kingdom, do? Until when? Who is the Ancient of Days in 13? Who is He in 22? Christ = God. Is this the great white throne judgment? How do we know it is not? Compare Rev. 20, the kingdom first, then the GWT. So it must be speaking of when the beast meets his fate, which is what? found where? Rev. 19:20. Who are the saints? Believing Israel. After the church has been removed, those who believe are persecuted and many are killed before Christ returns for His kingdom. Are only believing Jews killed? found where? Rev. 7:9-14.
23-25 Again it is emphasized that the fourth kingdom will be "different." KJV: diverse. Strong's: altered, changed. The word "different" is emphasized in this chapter, four times; his eyes are mentioned twice. We wonder, in what way will this kingdom and this man be different, altered, or changed from all that came before?
We see the final kingdom, the ten kings, and the little horn. As it said in 20, what political move does he make? What does he say about God, 25? We see persecution of Jews, or believers. He tries to change what and what? What might that mean? This first phrase is interesting because it is also used of God in 2:21; many think he will try to change the calendar, but does it speak of time or of times? Perhaps both? The word speaks of transforming, especially for the worse, to be other/different. Also, law or laws? What might be the difference? Don't all leaders change the laws? This seems to speak of something more significant. Does he actually make these changes or just intend to? We wonder what that might mean.
Who will be given into his hand? For how long? A time = one year, times = two years, half a time = half a year. How long is that? Where else have we read about that time period? This would be the last 3 1/2 years of the seven year tribulation period. Apparently during the first 3 1/2 years, he is a powerful person, but not having TOTAL power like he does when he requires people to take the mark (Rev. 13-14). What happens to him at the end of that time? Where did we just read about this court? (7:10) His dominion taken away: Rev. 19:15,19. Destroyed forever: Rev. 19:20. When we see how every detail of the Bible dovetails, should this impact our confidence in the Bible? This is something we can refer to when pointing others to the Bible.
When we study prophecy, some future events are clear but others are more obscure from our vantage point in time. Sometimes the Bible gives us interpretation clues, but what if it does not? Why does God's Word speak of future events? Isa. 42:9, 44:8, 48:3-7. Might some obscure details only become clear to those alive at that future time? What effect is that to have on them? What effect is prophecy to have on those reading it before the time it comes to pass? When we read of events that were foretold long before they took place, and have already been fulfilled, in every detail, what effect is that to have on us?
26-27 How does it all turn out? Israel finally receives the kingdom promised by God through the Old Testament prophets; they will be the primary nation, Deut. 28:13. During Christ's earthly reign, all the nations of the world will do what? Does that mean all will believe and be saved? or give outward obedience? Does His kingdom end after the thousand years? It goes on forever. So do we sit around in heaven for eternity, just singing and praising God? What was God's original plan for man--to sit around and sing praises? Instead, to do what? Will God have work for us all to do, just like His original plan for Adam and Eve? He created them perfect and put them in a perfect environment--might this be His ultimate plan for us?
28 Do you think Daniel is relating this vision to the statue in chapter 2? Why the strong reaction now, which was not the reaction then? Because of the disturbing details about the fourth kingdom? What would you say to someone who finds prophecy scary and upsetting? Many Christians fear this knowledge of the future because they fear we will be here for the tribulation, as many teach; this is our incentive to study about the rapture and be confident in what the Bible actually teaches. If we don't learn about future prophecy, might we instead think God's plan is basically about our salvation and how we should live our lives today? Is that OK if that is all we know? Do we have to understand all the details of prophecy--what about just realizing that God HAS this big plan for the ages--how might that change our outlook on life? Wouldn't we then trust Him even more, knowing He has the future in His hands? Does our worldview affect our daily decisions, our family life, our finances, our goals and expectations, how we respond to our trials? But can we walk with the Lord just as well if we have no knowledge of prophecy or interest in it?
Now the language used is Hebrew; the preceding section, about the Gentile nations, was written in Aramaic, the language of the Gentile nations. The rest of Daniel has specific reference to Israel.
1-2 Daniel records another vision, how long after the vision of 7:1? Both were during the reign of what king, during which kingdom? Susa would become the capital of the Media-Persian empire, just east of the city of Babylon. This would be where Esther was queen under King Xerxes, and where Nehemiah was cupbearer to King Xerxes. Why does the vision take place in this specific location, at the palace of Susa, when Babylon was the capital city of the kingdom of Babylon at this time? The next few verses answer that.
3-4 The ram, in this particular location, represents what, 20? The ram was the symbol of the ancient Persian empire, with ram's horns worn on helmets into battle. Persia was represented in the zodiac by Aries, the ram. What do the two horns represent, and why is one longer and coming up later? Persia arose later than Media and was stronger. What is this like in 7:5? So what has happened to Babylon at this point in the vision? It is out of the picture now, conquered. 4 is exactly what MP did.
5-6 What is the goat, 21? What is unique about him? His great speed; his one horn, unlike other goats--why? Greece is led by a single ruler. So again we see that in the Bible, horns often symbolize what? In the zodiac Greece was the goat, Capricorn. We are given some very specific information about what Greece will do in the future. And why here--what is the place where Daniel is standing? The future capital of MP; Greece comes against MP.
7-8 Who was this famous king of Greece? Alexander the Great. As a youth he was educated by Aristotle. When his father died and he became king of Greece at 20, he began his conquests and was undefeated; after Babylon, he expanded into India. His next goal was Arabia but he died before that happened. His army was characterized by great speed. When he died in his early 30's leaving no heirs, four generals divided the kingdom. The goat is like the leopard in 7:6--speedy/wings, four horns/four heads.
9-12 Out of one of these four horns will come a small horn. The NASB says "small," the KJV says "little"; both use "little" in Dan. 7:8. He is not the little horn of Dan.7; two different Hebrew words are used. What is the "beautiful land"? Beautiful, prominent, glorious, splendor: the land of Israel in God's assessment. Dan. 11 will give greater detail about this period and this small horn, which was a historical figure, Antiochus Epiphanes, who ruled Syria from 175-164 B.C. The future little horn will arise out of the ten horns/ten toes of the final kingdom. But this small horn has similarities to that little horn, which we will see more of in Dan. 11.
Is 10 speaking of angels--host, stars? These terms do often speak of angels. Does the context of 10-12 fit with angels? What else could it be that fits the context? Host: a great number, organized as for an army. In Exodus we read of the hosts of Israel leaving Egypt. Also Gen. 22:17, 37:9-10. They are given over to him and trampled by him--it was a time of severe persecution for the Jews.
He magnified himself to be equal with whom? He was boastful and blasphemous. He gave himself the name Epiphanes, which means "God manifest"--he claimed to be the human manifestation of God. Antiochus set himself up as Israel’s king. He placed an image of Jupiter in the holy place of the temple and offered swine on the altar; this was known as the abomination of desolation. Why will Israel be given over to this man Antiochus? What has always been the cause of God using their enemies to punish them? Because of their disobedience--on account of transgression.
So Daniel's vision is speaking prophetically of a historical figure, Antiochus Epiphanes, who would appear several hundred years later and fulfill these prophecies exactly. But doesn't he also sound like someone else the Bible speaks of, in a more distant future time period the Bible speaks of? So Daniel prophesies of a historical person who is also presented here as a type of who? We often see prophecy as being given on two levels--partially fulfilled in a historical event in the near future, picturing a distant event at which time there will be complete fulfillment. How does AE picture the beast who will appear at the time of the tribulation, at the future day of the Lord? Because of what we know about the beast and how he will be empowered by Satan, what might the host of heaven and the stars be a reference to? Compare Rev. 12:7-9, Eze. 28:2 (the prince of Tyre is also a type of the beast).
13-14 Daniel hears two angels speaking. The transgression that causes horror: the abomination of desolation. There will be 2300 days, then a restoration. This was fulfilled in the days of AE. Sacrifices could not be offered from September 9, 171 BC until the Maccabean revolt and rededication of the temple on December 25, 165 BC. Hanukah is the commemoration of this event.
15-16 Could Daniel, who can interpret the dreams and visions of others, understand this vision? We see two angels here. Do we ever see angels as women? or having wings? Only the seraphim and cherubim do. Besides Daniel, where else do we meet Gabriel? Luke 1:19. The rest of this chapter are his words.
17-18 What was Daniel’s response? This was not Mary's response, so why might Daniel react like this? Fright or horror about the vision--about what is ahead for Israel, the temple of God, the time of the end.
Since we are living after the time of AE, can "the time of the end" refer to the days of AE? That time has passed, and was not the end for Israel. That prophesied time was fulfilled, and was very bad, but was also a picture of an even worse time yet to come. This section of prophecy clearly teaches us that prophecy can have more than one level of meaning, more than one time period in mind (both being equally true), that a near future prophesied event can picture a distant future complete fulfillment. God has shown Daniel deep truth that completely overwhelmed him.
19-22 The angel now explains what we read in the beginning of the chapter. What two phrases in 19 again take us from the historical context to the future?
23-25 What time words do we see, 23 and 26? How is he described? Does this describe AE or the beast? Who are they both empowered by? So does this describe HIM also? Insolent: strong of face, vehement, harsh, fierce, greedy. Intrigue: ambiguous speech, puzzles, tricks, riddles. Deceitful: what is one of Satan's names? Father of lies. Are his lies easy to psot or resist? He is an accomplished liar; his lies are very believable, attractive, desirable. Vain, wanting to be and thinking that he is like and even above God. Some think AE was demon-possessed. His rise to power, and his great power, will come from where?
He will destroy to an extraordinary degree; like 7:7,23, 2:40. Destroy can also mean or include: corrupt, decay, mar. What are we already hearing of today that can change humans at the genetic level? all humans, because it could be mandatory for all? A Covid19 vaccine. We see how easily something like that could happen. In Revelation we talked about how those who take the mark will all be damned, and how one possible reason why might be that something about the mark changes them at the DNA level, making them no longer fully human. The Covid19 vaccine brings up the possibility of this technology.
Will anyone be able to stop him? Who would be the saints or holy people? Israel is his special target, and Christians. Daniel does not speak of the church, nor does any of the Old Testament, but God uses language here that can foreshadow and include the church. He could have said "Israel" here but it's interesting that He says "the holy people."
Will wars be the main cause of mass death? Who is the Prince of princes? Against/anti Christ. But what will happen to him? Where do we read about this happening? Rev. 19:19-21.
There was none to "explain" it, 27; what had the angel in 18-19 done? Previously Daniel had been given knowledge of future events, but now he had been given what kind of information about Israel's future, 24? Daniel knew God's promises to Israel; see Deut. 28:1,9-10,13-15,47-50 (I wonder if Daniel thought about the "yoke of iron" in 48?),58-67. So as Daniel contemplates this final kingdom and ruler who will destroy even God's people, can we see why he is so sick about it, and confused? WILL Israel stay faithful to God after this seventy-year captivity ends? Under kings David and Solomon, Israel had been the primary nation, strong and undefeated; now her future looks bleak. Hadn't God chosen Israel to be His own people, and Jerusalem--Mt. Zion, the holy mountain of God--to be His habitation, to be the location of His holy temple? How could these things be?? Prophets were often given bleak information about coming judgment for Israel along with a warning to repent, yet Daniel was not to warn his people but keep this knowledge to himself, so he just wrote it down. Daniel had already seen the first two of the four kingdoms; might he assume that the next two might happen in a similar time frame, and then Israel's Messiah and kingdom would come? Had Daniel been given any information yet on a time frame? But the next vision, in the next chapter, WILL address a time frame.
Might we too feel confused and upset when we think about what the Bible reveals about the end times? Why does God want us to know these things before they happen? This knowledge made Daniel so numb and sick that he was unable to work for days. The angel, 16, came to give Daniel understanding, but all he understood was that this was for the future. We are able to understand better than Daniel, because we have the rest of the Bible to shed further light, plus history. He did not know about God’s plan for the church or how this fit with God’s plan for Israel; we do. God has a plan for Israel, for the Gentiles (the “nations”), for the church, and for each of us as individuals; they are all intertwined in God's sovereign plan.
This information is not necessary to your daily Christian walk, if you find it too overwhelming to think about. Some people think it is unnecessary or inappropriate to study about the end times, or that we can't understand it or figure out what the Bible really means, and shouldn't waste our time on it. According to Acts 17, Paul was only in Thessalonica for less than a month, but according to his two letters to the Thessalonians, he had taught them about the rapture, the day of the Lord, the beast, the tribulation, and the second coming of Christ. Paul considered this subject important for new believers.
We look forward to being caught up, as the New Testament tells us to, but what comes after that and before the glorious kingdom is truly frightening. It is the time when God uses frightening events and frightening people to pour out His wrath on the earth, as He judges man's evil and purges and purifies Israel in preparation for them to finally recognize and receive their Messiah. Does the church need to be frightened by these frightening events? Why not? We will not be here for them, although we may see disturbing stage-setting as the day approaches.
Jesus tells us to pray "Thy kingdom come." The rapture and the tribulation must first come before that can happen, so when we pray "Thy kingdom come," we are actually praying what, Rev. 22:20? II Pet. 3:12 says we are to be "looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God." Jesus tells in Luke 21:24, "Jerusalem will be trampled under foot by the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled," which began with Nebuchadnezzar in Dan. 1 and will end at the end of the tribulation. Paul says in Rom. 11:25 that we ought not to be ignorant (KJV), or uninformed (NASB), "that a partial hardening has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in." When the church age is completed, God will once again deal with Israel, and complete the plan laid out for us in Daniel. We will read more details of that plan in the next four chapters. God's promises to Israel of the kingdom must and will be fulfilled.
1-3 When does this take place? This would be 536-539 BC, 66 years after Daniel's captivity. Again, some disagreement over the identity of Darius. Daniel had served in one world empire, now he has seen another come into being and he has served in it. He sees the partial fulfillment of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar. Why was Daniel praying? He was familiar with the prophecies of Jeremiah, and he sees things happening that are paving the way for the fulfillment of this prophecy.
4 We want to look at Daniel's prayer, and see what we can learn about prayer. When the Bible records prayers of great men such as Daniel, David and Paul, we want to pay attention, and learn how to pray, and what kinds of things to pray for.
There is currently a book out about the prayer of Jabez, from I Chron. 4:10. It has caused some controversy in Christian circles. The prayer is by an obscure person, is one verse long, and is quite different from the prayers of Daniel, David and Paul. Jabez asks for blessings, and that he would not experience harm or pain. Now let's see how Daniel begins his prayer. We see serious prayer, no quickie here.
4-5 This is typical of what we have seen in the Old Testament. What do we usually see first in these prayers? Humble recognition of who God is, praise, recognition of sinfulness and repentance. The entire prayer, through 19, is confession and repentance. The prayer of Jabez seems quite trite and self-centered in comparison, yet I believe many Christians pray like that. "Bless me (give me…) and make everything feel OK!" So how come there is no popular book on the prayer of Daniel? Did God grant Jabez's requests? Does that necessarily mean He approved of it? Can you think of other requests that God granted that He did not approve of? Meat in the wilderness; Num. 11:4,18,31-33; Ps. 106:15. So what should they have requested instead?
Perhaps it is better not to look at prayer as requesting, but as an opportunity to look to God in humble acceptance of whatever His will brings. But doesn't the New Testament say we are to ask, and that we have not because we ask not? Again, if we look at Paul's prayers, what sort of things does he ask for? "Stuff"? Mostly for God's working in his life and in other people's lives. We don't know what "things" or events God desires to bring into our lives; doesn't it seem audacious to suggest to Him what would be best for us? Do we really know? Is there any chance that our plan would be better than what God has planned? Jesus taught us to pray FIRST for God's will to be done (not ours), for our daily needs, forgiveness (implying repentance for our sins) and for God's leading in our lives. Jabez's prayer is not like this. Does God's "blessing"--His best for us, which means our spiritual growth--always come in a pleasant form? Might it come through pain or difficulty He plans to lead us through? It often does. We would like to experience Christian maturity without the painful growth process.
According to 4, who are God's blessings reserved for? Today we hear the word "awesome" a lot, meaning what? What does it mean here?
5 I doubt he is just being repetitive here. There are different kinds of sin. He hit them all, from evil deeds and rebelliousness to missing the mark and just failing to do what should have been done. We see that he is speaking of all Israel, not just himself. Should we just say, "forgive me my sins," or should we name them? Why?
6 What was Israel guilty of? He names a specific sin.
7 What belongs to God? And what to them? This is quite different from the response Adam and Eve had to their sin. He doesn't pass the buck or blame others as they did; he doesn't whine, explain, justify, or ask God WHY He made us like He did (a way of putting the blame on God).
9 He alludes to forgiveness, but doesn't actually ask God to forgive-yet.
10 He confesses things they have done as well as things they haven't done. Can not doing something be sin?
11 Daniel recognizes the captivity as the fulfillment of the curse written in the Law, and that they deserve this curse. Today some people want to claim the blessings of the Law for the church, but do you hear them talk about the curses? Some were publicly asking God to bless our country following the terrorist attack, but did we see them approaching a righteous God with humility and prayers of repentance for themselves and their nation? Can our nation repent? As a nation? I believe the Bible indicates that only Israel can respond to God as a nation, because Israel is the only nation God chose as a nation and put them under His rule. God deals with Israel as a nation. Now in the church age, He deals with everyone else as individuals.
14 Even when God brings calamity, He is righteous. ALL His deeds, even judgment. Contrasting God's deeds and their deeds.
15 "And now O Lord": now that he has confessed, he begins his petition.
16 Jerusalem is referred to as the holy mountain. We saw this terminology in Psalms, and this confirms that as referring to Jerusalem. Finally he asks God to do something--what?
17 What else does he ask God to do? Why should God do anything for us? Because of how deserving we are? This is a rather general request; does he tell God what he thinks God should do?
18 Compare Eph. 2:8-9. Total humility is required; we have nothing to offer, no ground to stand on. Does he tell God what he thinks God should do?
19 Finally he asks God to forgive, after making it very clear that he understands the basis of that forgiveness. He does not ask presumptuously. Take action, don't delay: does he suggest what action God should take? Should we suggest to God what we think He should do in a particular situation? Does He need our suggestions? Study the prayers of the Bible to find out what kinds of things we should pray for and about. He is concerned for God's name; are we as concerned, or are we mostly concerned for our own selves?
20 He keeps talking about "us" and "our" but now he says he is confessing his OWN sin--not just talking about Israel in general. Do we have any record of Daniel's sins? Does it matter? Everyone has sinned, even believers that appear to be really godly. Sin can be many things, not just stuff that looks bad to others. The closer you get to God, the more you become aware of your own sinfulness, pride and self-centeredness; Daniel appears to be as godly as any man in the Bible.
21 The plot thickens. What happens during this prayer? We see again that angels appear as men. Has Daniel even finished his prayer? Compare Is. 65:24. Why was he weary? Evening offering: offerings can't be made now, without the temple, but he refers to a particular time of day.
22-23 Actually, the information he now gives Daniel does not seem to be anything Daniel was praying for, at least not in this prayer, or perhaps he had just not got to that part yet. But from verses 1-3 we see that this was his concern. It's interesting how he went about presenting this concern to God. Is Daniel more loved than others? Are WE greatly beloved? Why? Because we are IN CHRIST, the Beloved.
24-27 These four verses are important in understanding God's prophetic timetable. We want to look carefully and in detail at this section. First notice the main things talked about. 24, the 70 weeks or sevens, who it's about. (Who? And what place? NOT the church. These terms are not interchangeable.) 25, a decree, a time period from the decree until the Messiah. 26, the Messiah cut off, the people of the prince who is to come. 27, a one week covenant (one seven), abomination in the middle of that seven.
First, are these 70 literal weeks? Context: Daniel has been thinking about the 70 years captivity, in which Israel was punished a year for each period of seven years that the land was not given its Sabbath rest. 25-26 tell us what is to happen during the first 69 weeks. We are to begin from what event? When was this decree? Read Neh. 2:1-8. Now look at the things listed at the end of Dan. 9:24. In fact, we can see that they have not yet happened, and will not happen until some time in the future. ("Everlasting" can also be translated as ages. The kingdom will be an age of righteousness. OR, just the idea of these events bringing in the Messiah, in whom is everlasting righteousness. The Most Holy could be the Messiah, or the Holy Place in the temple.)
Since these events did not take place during the 69 days, weeks, or months following that decree, it must mean sevens of something else. It appears to refer to the beginning of the Messiah's kingdom. Weeks are sevens, so we have 70 sevens, or 70 7-year-periods. And it so happens that years fit the historical time frame exactly. The decree was in 445 BC. The Messiah presented Himself to Israel as King at the triumphal entry to Jerusalem, 32 AD. 7 weeks of years plus 62 weeks of years. Or, 49 plus 434. The first 49 years takes us from the decree to the end of the book of Malachi. The next 434 years takes us to the day Christ presented Himself to Israel as King. Compare Luke 19:14. AFTER that point, "Messiah is cut off," crucified. So Daniel is actually prophesying that Israel will reject her Messiah when He comes. Since the first 69 weeks of years have been exactly literally fulfilled, we can know that the last week of years will also. (There are books that give the details of figuring this time period, taking into consideration the Jewish calendar and leap years.)
That still leaves one more week; it is discussed in 27. But 26 tells what happens between the sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks. So we have a time period followed by certain events, followed by the last 7, or the last 7 years. So have those events happened yet? Those who don't take the literal interpretation say this is 70 actual weeks, and is fulfilled in the literal destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD. However, the things listed in 24 didn't happen at the end of that period. They had not been fulfilled at the time John wrote Revelation (about 95 AD), so at that time they were still future. (Those who believe it was fulfilled in 70 AD also believe John wrote Revelation before 70 AD, even though there is no manuscript evidence, only their own desire to make a time-table that corresponds to their beliefs.)
But we do see a partial, "near" fulfillment of this prophecy in that event, while its literal fulfillment awaits a future time. We do get another clue here identifying this prince; he is the prince of what people? What people destroyed the city and temple in 70 AD? The Romans; just as we saw earlier in Daniel that the last world empire, the legs of iron, was the Roman empire, and as the iron is mixed with clay in the final kingdom, we see that the Roman empire is still in view.
Further evidence for future fulfillment is the fact that the 7 years mentioned in 27, the break in the middle (three and a half years), and the comments about this "prince," all fit with other passages telling of the final world ruler. Revelation talks about the three and a half year periods, as does Dan. 7 and Dan. 12. This prince is the little horn of Dan. 7, the small horn of Dan. 8, the beast of Revelation and the man of sin of II Thes. 2.
The length of the time gap between the sixty-ninth and seventieth weeks was not revealed to the prophets. Someone people refuse to believe there is such a time gap because the Bible does not use the word "gap." (Neither does it use the terms "trinity," "original sin," or "the fall," but that doesn't mean it doesn't contain and teach those concepts.) The Bible does refer to this "gap" in various places. Read Hosea 3:4-5. When was their last king? When will they next have a king? God gave definite time periods when dealing with Israel, but to the church He doesn't give set times. Israel was first put out of the land for 490 years, the second time for 70 years, but this time for an indefinite period, "for many days," because it is that indefinite period of the church age.
Compare Mt. 25:5-6. Notice the time clues. The bridegroom is who? Where did He go? So does the Bible say He would come right back? The word "delay" indicates that some time passes, and no one knows for sure just when He is coming back. How did people on earth react to His leaving and delay? All, even the ones with the oil, get drowsy, lethargic. (Compare I Thes. 5:1-11.) When does the bridegroom return? Midnight, the very end of the day. Read John 14:3; does Jesus say how much time will pass between His leaving and His return?
We refer to this gap or time period as the age of what? Grace, or the church age. It is an unspecified period of time, in which we are living--the time following Christ's crucifixion, up until the ruler of the final kingdom, in the time of the 10 toes. The church was not revealed in the Old Testament, nor was the church age. The New Testament calls this a "mystery," Eph. 3:8-11. In the Bible, a mystery is not used as something we can't figure out, but rather, as something which was not previously revealed and now is. Christ made it clearer when He came; compare Luke 4:16-21, where He read from Is. 61:1-2, but stopped in the middle of the verse and said that these things have been fulfilled. The last part had not yet been fulfilled; it was future, at His second coming.
We have also seen that God uses specific time periods when dealing with Israel. Has God given the church any specific dates or time periods? The church age will end when what happens? (when the church is caught up to meet Christ in the air) Review II Thes. 2. And the seventieth week will begin when what happens, according to Dan. 9:27? The making (NASB) or confirming (KJV) of a 7-year covenant/treaty with "the many." Everyone says this means Israel, although it doesn't say that specifically. However, the phrase "the many" is used several more times in Daniel and each time seems to refer to Israel, 11:33, 11:39, 12:3. (KJV just says "many" so this may not even be significant.) In the middle of the week he breaks the treaty, whoever it is with, and things begin to go very badly for Israel.
This is further evidence that the 70 weeks cannot be literal weeks, because it seems extremely unlikely that any ruler would make a treaty for one week, or break it after 3 1/2 days. Rev. 12:13-17 tells of his great persecution of Israel for 3 1/2 years, which would be the second 3 1/2 years. Also, read Is. 28:15-18, a description of this time. References to the covenant being with death and Sheol are further evidence of the satanic power behind this man. Falsehood and deception will mark this period and this man. Compare Mt. 24:4-5,11,23-24.
27 He will end sacrifice and offering; these will have been restored. He begins as a political world ruler, but after the first 3 1/2 years, he assumes the role of world religious leader also. Compare Rev. 13. "On the wing of abominations": there are other references to the abomination of desolation in the middle of the 7 years. "Makes desolate", or causes horrors: again Rev. 12 tells of the great persecution. Also read Mt. 24:15-21. A time of unprecedented horror following this event. By the way, as Matthew was written to the Jews, and the church age was still unknown, we do not see the church age or the rapture pictured in Mt. 24, as many say. This is an important factor in understanding Mt. 24 (see notes on Mt. 24). We see the tribulation, the second coming, and the introduction of the kingdom.
So, in short, to answer Daniel's questions about when Israel will come into her kingdom, it won't be right away! These periods of times and these events must take place first. It is off in the future. We also see in studying the prophetic teachings of Matthew 24 how important it is to read and study the WHOLE Bible before attempting to interpret and understand prophetic passages. The Bible interprets itself if you compare and contrast passages.
1 Daniel has another vision, when? Later, Daniel is even older now (about four years after the vision of the 70 weeks). What had happened in the first year of Cyrus's reign? Read Ezra 1:1-4. So Israel's 70 years of captivity were ended; had they all returned to their land? This probably puzzled and saddened Daniel. This vision he was able to understand. The vision itself is recorded in Dan. 11 and 12; in this chapter, we have information on what went on before the vision was given, behind the scenes, in the unseen world of spiritual warfare, of angels and demons. We also have Daniel's response to the vision and to the angel. The message is about great what?
2-3 What had he been doing? Why? The great conflict, warfare, involving his people's future. Just as the previous angel visit had been in response to a prayer about his people and their future.
4 Where and when.
5-6 Someone appears to him in a vision; an angel? Christ Himself? Read Rev. 1:12-16. ("A certain man" is often used in a parable to refer to God.) Other descriptions of angels don't use this term.
7-9 If this was Christ, this is similar to Paul seeing Christ on the road to Damascus, and those who were with him heard a voice but could not see Him. Daniel's response to being in the presence of this angel or the angel of the Lord. What will it be like when we find ourselves in God's presence? Deep awe, fear, humility, awareness of our sinfulness, no strength left. A sobering thought.
10-11 Someone touches Daniel. If the certain man was Christ, this would probably be an angel, because the rest of the chapter speaks of a prolonged conflict between him and demons. He speaks to Daniel. Many today say, don't concern yourself with a "morbid" desire to know the future, just worry about living the Christian life today. But God DOES want us to have some understanding of future events, of His ultimate purpose and the fulfillment of all His promises. This helps us to know God better, what He is like, what He is doing, how we fit in. It's not all about us, today. It's not all about the church. It's about God and His plans for the ages.
12 In desiring this understanding of the future, what was Daniel's underlying attitude? Not just curiosity or the desire to see spectacular signs.
13 What do we learn about the unseen spiritual realm? There are good guys and bad guys. Do the bad guys have much power? We see demons and angels referred to as princes and kings. Compare Rom. 8:38-39, Eph. 6:10-13. We don't find this warning to the Jews in the Old Testament; they are constantly warned about ungodly peoples around them, whom they are commanded to overcome militarily, and not intermarry with. We (the church) are not commanded to struggle against physical enemies, but rather to pray for them, forgive them, and do good to them. But we ARE told who our real enemies are, and how to fight against them. It's not just the devil.
Satan's tactics vary. Read I Pet. 5:8-9 and II Cor. 11:14 (13 and 15, we are also warned of his followers-do they always look evil?). So some demons function in the political realm, and some in the religious realm. Satan promotes "religion." Satan tempted Jesus to worship him, in exchange for which he would give all the kingdoms of the world. This must have been a valid and difficult temptation, for we don't find Jesus scoffing at the offer. And, those kingdoms WERE his to give, at that time. (All three of the temptations were designed to appeal to pride, if Jesus had any.) John 12:31, Jesus calls him "the ruler of this world." Ruler/prince/king. Eph. 2:2, Paul calls him "the prince of the power of the air." Satan and his demons temporarily run this world, this cosmos, the present world system, which we are warned not to be involved in even though we must live in it; one day that will change, and the world will be run on a different basis.
13 We see a great deal of power on both sides. Why would the demon in charge of Persia not want this angel to come to Daniel? He was about to reveal some hidden information about the future of Persia and Satan's agenda. We see that Satan does not want us to have this information, but God does! Michael is one of two angels who are named in the Bible; the other is Gabriel. He is an archangel, but apparently not the only one.
14 Who is the vision about? And what time period is it about?
15 Daniel's reaction. He does not just carry on a conversation here. When God finally appeared to Job, after Job ranted and raved about what he would say to God if he got the chance, Job was amazingly silent too. What little he did say had to do with his repentance. When we are in God's presence, we will have an overwhelming sense of our sinfulness.
16-17 Interesting choice of words: no strength in me. This is just what the New Testament teaches about the flesh, Self, the old nature.
18-19 Daniel is now strong enough to do what? Just to listen! We see some things that God does for the believer; He does not want us to lack peace or courage. He does not want us to be full of fear. He supplies those things for us; how? Does He just instantly pump us full of those qualities? Not usually; He sends experiences into our lives which allow us to develop those qualities. But sometimes He supernaturally supplies those qualities in time of need.
20 So perhaps there are demons (satanic angels) in charge of every kingdom. Was the angelic struggle JUST over the bringing of this message? No, it would be ongoing. As the Persians, or Medes/Persians, fell to the Greeks, a different demon would be in charge. So we have seen God dealing with kings, that they might know that He is God, and we see Satan at work in every kingdom.
21 Michael is the angel assigned to the nation of Israel. So is this angel, standing against the princes of Persia and Greece, assigned to this area? We are not told of any of the other good angels being assigned to nations. We could ASSUME they are since there are wicked angels in these roles, and there may be a parallel. OR, we might conclude that only Israel, as the only nation that is God's chosen people, has an angel standing for them. Satan offered Jesus all the kingdoms of the world, so they must all belong to him at this time. Where else do we read about Michael? Dan. 12:1 (again, assigned to Israel), Jude 9, Rev. 12:7.
This verse is another evidence that if Christ is pictured in 5-6, He is NOT the one speaking after that, but an angel is speaking. This verse would not seem to apply to Christ--the angel of the Lord.
1 Who is speaking? The angel from Dan. 10. Who is the "him" at the end? Could be referring to Darius, or could be referring to Michael from 10:21; remember, the chapter and verse divisions have been added, were not in the original.
This chapter is a detailed prophecy of events that will impact Israel under the second and third kingdoms, Persia and Greece. Verses 2-35 have been literally fulfilled in history, according to every detail in this chapter. Briefly, 3 refers to Alexander the Great. 4, he died, leaving no heirs, so the kingdom was divided among 4 generals. Two of those lines are discussed in this chapter, the Seleucids that ruled Syria (the kings of the North) and the Ptolemies that ruled Egypt (the kings of the South). Directions in the Bible are from Israel. Israel, in the middle, was invaded by both. 14, your people, Israel. 16, the beautiful land, Israel. 20, glory or jewel of the kingdom could be Jerusalem.
This detailed prophecy, fulfilled literally in history, is the reason critics reject the authenticity of the book of Daniel. They don't believe in miracles or the supernatural, so they just flat reject it, saying it must have actually been written AFTER those events, which would make Daniel, and therefore the Bible, false. But they have no evidence to date Daniel after these events. This is the same reasoning of the evolutionists, who reject the possibility of a God, so therefore, creation CANNOT be true, and regardless of the scientific evidence, evolution is the only other alternative, so it must be true.
This detailed prophecy that has been literally fulfilled is strong evidence that the Bible is supernatural, divine, authored by God. Use this fact in talking to unbelievers and skeptics. It should strengthen our own belief that the Bible is infallible and inerrant (what do those theological words mean?) It also strengthens our belief that future prophecy will also be literally fulfilled, to the smallest detail.
21 Now one king in particular is discussed, Antiochus Epiphanes, a "despicable person." He is the small horn of 8:9, but not the little horn of Dan. 7, which will not arise until the 10 kings/kingdoms of the final empire. But he is like that little horn, as we will see in this chapter. Everything mentioned about him through 35 has already taken place. I won't go into the historical details; you can read about this in various commentaries.
36-45 From here through the end of the chapter, we have events that have not yet been fulfilled, so they must be future. It appears to still be talking about this king, but he sounds amazingly like the little horn, the beast of Revelation, the Antichrist. We see Antiochus Epiphanes pictured as a "type" of that final ruler, a small fulfillment in history picturing the future greater fulfillment of this prophecy, as Bible prophecy so often does. So by looking at him, we can learn more about this future king.
21 Does he become the world ruler because he wins a world war?
22 He deposed the high priest, the "prince of the covenant." The people of the covenant would refer to Israel.
23 What alliance? What else have we read about that fits with this concept? What else have we read that describes deception following this alliance or covenant? Besides breaking that covenant, he will be characterized by deception.
24 Again, this does not take place through war. Only for a time, his power does not last long. How long? Devise schemes, more deception, intrigue.
25 More schemes. We don't see military might being the main factor at that time.
26 He and his enemies ate together, feigned friendship.
27 More deception. Will man's plans prevail on this earth? God has an appointed time for everything.
28 He is against the Jews, the people of the holy covenant. He appears at first to be their friend, their deliverer, but he is not.
29 Again, everything he does is at God's appointed time; this is all in God's plan and under His control, even though it looks like man, and Satan, are at the controls now.
30 Anger at the Jews; he will favor those who turn against their own people.
31 He stopped the daily sacrifice, set up an image of Jupiter the sun god in the holy place, and offered swine's blood and broth on the altar. We read in a couple of other places about the abomination of desolation; when will it happen? 3 1/2 years after he signs the treaty with Israel.
32 He rewarded those who turned against Israel. This was when the famous Maccabees revolted against him; this story is not recorded in the Bible but is found in other writings. We read elsewhere of brother against brother, and parent against child, not knowing who you can trust at that time. There WILL be a faithful remnant at that time, as always in the past.
33 As at that time, some will be faithful, but many of those will die because of it. I wonder of these who have insight, who give understanding to others, might be a reference to the 144,000 witnesses of Revelation 7.
34 Hypocrisy; pretending to be on which side?
35 Here we have a reason for these things which will happen to the Jews, and a specific reference to the future implications of these words. Some people talk about how Christians will have to go through this time for this reason. DOES the church need to be refined, purged, made pure? Why? Read Eph. 5:27. But we do need to do what? Read Eph. 4:13-16. We could find many passages that talk about growing and maturing. Again, it is so important to compare all Scripture.
36-39 A couple of clues. End of 35, then (a time word, could be referring back to end of 35), the king. His boastful arrogant mouth, making himself equal to God, demanding worship--we have read similar things in other passages. Also sounds very much like what we know about Satan. Read Mt. 24:15-21, Rev. 12:14, Rev. 13:5-8. Again, we notice that his anti-god, satanic nature seems to manifest itself not at the first, but in the middle of the seven years of tribulation. As he was from the Greeks, some think the final ruler of the Roman Empire will come from that area.
37 Could be God or gods. Desire of women, some think he will be homosexual, some think it refers to the desire of Jewish women to be the mother of the Messiah. Perhaps he will just have no interest in women or sex.
38-39 Here we have him honoring some sort of god, a god his fathers did not know. (KJV, "strange" god) Yet 37, no regard for any other god. Some say "god of fortresses" (KJV, "forces") is military might, but that is not something his fathers did not know. Something funny is going on here--perhaps some new kind of power that was previously unknown. We don't know what this means, but I'm sure these remarks will make perfect sense to true believers at that time, as they observe this man.
As we discussed in Dan. 7, some think he could be an "alien," a half-alien hybrid, or have some sort of "alien" connection. Several terms in this chapter seem to mesh with this idea. 21, a despicable person, not exactly a king, seizing control by "intrigue." 23, deception, will accomplish what his fathers and ancestors never did. 36, speaking monstrous things against God, the "indignation." 37, no regard for any god, or for the desire of women. 38, honoring a "god of fortresses, a god whom his fathers did not know"--something different.
40-45 Political and military events prophesied. Again we have kings of the north and the south referred to, and things going on in the east. We never read of "kings of the west"; the only major country to the west is in North America, the major world power today. This is one reason why many think that somehow, the US will not be a major power at that time.
We see his kingdom pictured in Daniel as a world empire. Read Rev. 13:2. In Daniel we saw this ruler, the little horn, arising out of the 10 kingdoms, but here we see that the beast has 10 horns. It is made up of 10 kingdoms, but three of the rulers are missing. Daniel told us that this little horn would uproot three of the 10 horns. Read 13:7, he has authority over every nation. Yet he does not rule unopposed. Daniel 11 tells of conflict with the king of the north and of the south, and of problems in the east (this could be the 200 million man army referred to in Rev. 9:14-16 coming from across the Euphrates).
So there will be military conflict during those 7 years, but he does not come to power due to a war. Just as Antiochus Epiphanes in 24 gained access to the richest parts, so in 43 will this ruler have access to hidden wealth, whatever that is. Oil? 45, between the sea, Dead Sea & Mediterranean, at Jerusalem, as Christ would. 45, but he will come to an end, as we have read in many other places. This won't go on for long.
This is a continuation of the vision mentioned in Dan. 10, that began in Dan. 11. Who is speaking? Still the angel.
1 No more about the king who is like Antiochus Epiphanes. But we are told some other things. Again we are told that, just as there are wicked angels assigned to various nations, Michael is the angel that is over what nation? What is the second thing we are told in this verse? Compare Jesus' description of that time that is coming, Mt. 24:21. Many claim this has already happened, at the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 AD. But WAS that the worst thing that ever happened to the Jews? Was it worse than Hitler's holocaust? Both those events were a type of the great tribulation to come, but do not match the Bible's description of that time. What does Mt. 24:29 say will happen right after that? Did this happen in 70 AD? To take that view means you must throw out or change the meaning of parts of the Bible.
What is the third thing we are told in verse 1? Some of the Jews will be rescued; which ones? So we find that at the end of the seven years of tribulation, there will be in Israel believing Jews and unbelieving Jews. As we saw in Dan. 3, "rescued" implies being removed from the dangerous situation. The Messiah returns at that time, the little horn/beast is removed, and the believers are rescued from him.
2 There will be a resurrection of the dead then; who must be resurrected at that time? Believing Israel; they must be resurrected in order to inherit the kingdom, to receive what God promised them. "These" must refer back to 12:1--everyone who is found written in the book. Also, read Dan. 12:13. Daniel will rise to receive his allotted portion at that time; so must all true believers of Israel. Read Mt. 8:11, Ez. 37:12. What about that last phrase? When are all unbelievers resurrected? At the last judgment, Rev. 20:11-15. When does that take place? At the end of the millenium, Rev. 20. Just because both statements are found in the same verse does not imply they must take place at the same time; when Jesus read from Is. 61:1-2, He stopped in the middle of 2, because the first part of 2 refers to His first coming and the second part refers to His second coming.
So how many resurrections are there, and when? First, at the rapture, that of the church, I Thes. 4:16-17. Who does it say will rise at that time? The dead in Christ; we never find that term used of people in the Old Testament. Second, at the end of the tribulation, believing Jews who have died. Third, we saw that all unbelievers are resurrected at the end of the millenium. What about non-Jews who believe during the tribulation and die or are killed? Read Rev. 20:1-4. So they are resurrected at the end of the tribulation, before the millenial kingdom begins, along with the believers of Israel in the Old Testament.
What about all those Old Testament believers who were not of Israel? Abraham, Isaac and Jacob are not Jews (Jews are the sons of Israel/Jacob), but what does it say about them in Mt. 8:11? So they must be resurrected at this time too. There must be a final resurrection of believers at the end of the kingdom, who become believers during the kingdom age, because we are told there will be birth and death during the millenium, Is. 65:20. These would be the ones referred to in Rev. 20:15, those whose names ARE found written in the book of life.
I wonder of the word "many" at the beginning of 12:2 is referring particularly to Israel. Compare also the word "many" in 9:27, 12:2,3,4,10.
3 Some will have great insight (margin: the instructors), and some will lead many to righteousness. This could be a reference to the 144,000 witnesses of Rev. 7.
4 These prophecies are for the distant future, the end of time (which is followed by the beginning of eternity, at the end of Christ's earthly kingdom). Seal: preserve, close up, validate. Some think this means we can't know what this book is about. As far as Daniel is concerned, he should seal it up, because it is not for him but for the distant future. We are getting close to that time, and, unlike Daniel, we now have God's complete written Word. Compare Rev. 22:10 and 1:3. Last phrase: Some think it refers to increased travel and knowledge in our modern world, even to missionary activity. It may refer to the Bible, to these prophecies, that people will make more effort to increase their knowledge of these things as the time approaches. It could refer to Amos 8:12. Again, "many" could mean Israel, running around fruitlessly looking for a message from God, but God is temporarily not dealing with them because of their disobedience.
5 Two more angels.
6-8 One asks Christ how long it will be. At the end of the 3 1/2 years everything mentioned will be completed. The Bible doesn't tell a lot about the first 3 1/2 years of the tribulation but much about the last 3 1/2 years. Again we see what phrase that means 3 1/2 years? Shatter--elsewhere in the Bible we learn that the kings of all the earth are coming against Israel at the end of the tribulation.
9 Daniel is not to concern himself over these things; they are not for his time. Some say that prophecies were fulfilled in the immediate context of those to whom it was given; otherwise, if it was not for them, it wouldn't make sense. But here we see that Daniel has been given much information regarding the distant future, and is told as much.
10 This is not speaking of the church; the context is Israel. The church or the church age is not mentioned in the Old Testament. This is what God is doing with Israel during the seven years of tribulation, and especially the last 3 1/2 years. The Old Testament has been very clear that their disobedience has brought this on them.
11-12 Another reference to the abomination of desolation. We saw that 1260 days equaled 3 1/2 years, so what are these two numbers indicating? Apparently some things have to happen in between the end of the seven years and the beginning of the kingdom reign of Christ. I would guess that it could be the judging of the Gentiles to show who will enter the kingdom and who won't. Not all will "attain" to this day, Mt. 25:31-46. Also, Mt. 13:40-43, 47-50. Read Dan. 7:21-22. Sounds like a bit of time passes while this all takes place.
13 Again, Daniel is told that he should just go on with his life since these things won't really concern him. This speaks of his death, entering his rest (Abraham's bosom, Luke 16:22-23), then his resurrection at what time? At the end of the church age or the age of grace; at the beginning of the next age or dispensation, the kingdom age. The angel reaffirms that he will have a part in these events at that distant time. Also Is. 26:19-21. So we find the Bible teaches that Old Testament saints will be resurrected for the beginning of the kingdom age, to inherit all the promises about the kingdom on earth, when Israel is the head and not the tail, and Christ rules from Jerusalem.
Daniel is a key book of prophecy, even though Daniel himself was not called to be a prophet in the sense that the other prophets were. We do not find him saying, "And the word of the Lord came unto me, saying…" as do most of the other prophets. His messages were not for the purpose of chastising Israel for their idolatry and disobedience, as were most of the other prophets. God gave him prophetic information in dreams and visions, which he recorded. God gave him some very specific information in advance, concerning all the people of the world and far distant events, as well as some timetables for these events. Amazingly, these timetables mesh exactly with everything else the Bible records about future events. Besides Daniel, we find this information particularly in Mt. 24-25 and Revelation. Studied together, they give an outline of future events.
Daniel is one of the outstanding believers in the Bible account. His life span covered a crucial time in Israel's history. He held high positions in several very powerful empires, because of his own unique abilities, his obedience to God, and because of God's providence. He had no visible failings but was true to God under difficult circumstances. He is truly an example for all believers.
Daniel is also an important book for our understanding of the whole Bible. Because of the literal fulfillment of the detailed prophecies of Dan. 11, we have historical evidence of the truth and accuracy of the Bible. Fulfilled prophecy is one of the best evidences for the inspiration of the Bible. The Bible is infallible and inerrant. People say you can't prove the Bible is true, but fulfilled prophecy, and the book of Daniel in particular, does indeed prove that the Bible is true. There is no human explanation for fulfilled prophecy.
Copyright 2004 Jan Young
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